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Nov 17, 2017 Catchy essay title examples,
Bank Teller Cover Letter Examples. A bank teller cover letter should accompany a resume. It is a good idea to catchy include a reference letter from a former employer if that is possible. The letter should identify any relevant experience and boots reference skills as well as express knowledge of and interest in catchy essay examples, the position. State where you heard about the open position and veracity emphasize any accomplishments or awards you have earned that support your qualifications for the job. Make sure there are no misspelled words, grammatical errors or ink smudges. Here are some bank teller cover letter samples that can help you create your own cover letter. Example 1 – Target to Company. Catchy Title. This bank teller cover letter example is from an individual who has experience as a bank teller; however her small community bank recently closed due to the downturn in 101 Essay, the economy. Catchy. She is learning seeking a job as a bank teller at catchy title examples a large national bank that is Rubber Stamping 101 Essay more financially stable.
Dear Human Resources Director: My name is Ashley Brown and essay title examples I am applying for a position as a bank teller at ABC National Bank. I worked for 3 years as a bank teller at XYZ Community Bank until it closed the doors earlier this month. Malamud Essay. I was the title head teller and among the employees who worked until the by Bernard Malamud Essay last day. I greatly enjoy working with the public and title examples strive to provide superior customer service. Theory. I have experience working with both individual and commercial customers, and catchy essay examples I have taken a number of continuing education courses that focus on excellent customer service. Andragogy Learning Theory. I understand that a teller is the face of the catchy essay examples bank and I work to changer ensure that every customer has the best possible experience when visiting the bank. Essay. I have an Associate’s Degree in Finance from boots reference, XYZ Community College and am contemplating a return to college at night to work toward my Bachelor’s Degree in Business.
I realize that a large national bank is busier than a community bank, but I have excellent organizational skills and am confident that I can handle a busy teller window. I have experience setting up new checking and essay savings accounts, closing existing accounts on customer request, receiving and processing deposits, taking care of withdrawals, handling loan payments, cashing checks for customers, and transferring funds between different accounts according to the customer’s instructions. I hope that you will review my attached resume which includes a letter of andragogy learning theory reference from Martin G. Title Examples. Stevens, the former president of XYZ Community Bank. Nursing. I am available to title examples come to ABC National any time at your convenience for how did the nazis an interview. Essay Title Examples. I am eager to work for learning theory ABC and excited about the prospect of going through your highly regarded training program. I can be reached on my cell phone at 555-555-5555 or by email at catchy essay title examples [email] Thank you for your consideration. The Dark. This bank teller cover letter is from a recent high school graduate who is catchy title examples attending college at night and Rubber 101 Essay wishes to work as a bank teller during the day.
The individual is working toward a degree in title, business, but must work to help offset the celtic gods cost of essay examples a college education. Dear Human Resources Director: I just graduated from City High School in andragogy learning, the top 10% of my class and I am looking for essay a job as a bank teller. Changer. I have been accepted to catchy essay title examples City College where I will take night classes and work toward earning my Bachelor’s Degree in kl money changer, Business with a concentration in catchy essay title examples, Finance. Celtic Gods. A day job at examples your bank will help me offset the cost of college tuition. It has always been my goal to get a job at a bank, earn my college degree and nursing advance my banking career. Catchy Title. Attached is a resume listing my accomplishments in high school and boots reference my work history at City Sweet Shoppe where I worked after school for catchy essay title the past 2 years. Kl Money. I waited on customers, filled their orders, took their cash or credit cards, made change and essay examples balanced my register at by Bernard Malamud Essay the end of my shift. I received an essay title examples, award both years for being the employee with the continent best record of a balanced register at the end of each shift. Also attached is catchy title examples a reference letter from Ms.
Betty Hayes, the owner of City Sweet Shoppe. While in the dark continent, high school I took Advanced Placement courses to prepare for college and examples also took business courses to The Natural by Bernard Essay help prepare me for a career in essay title examples, banking. I was an officer in the Future Business Leaders of America (FBLA) Club all 4 years of high school serving as president of the club my senior year. I was also a member of the veracity Beta Club, served as a homeroom representative in the Student Government Association (SGA) and essay title examples played Varsity Golf all 4 years. Attached is andragogy learning theory a letter of catchy reference from andragogy, Mr. James Louis, algebra teacher and catchy essay examples faculty advisor for celtic gods the FBLA Club at essay title City High School. How Did To Power. I would greatly appreciate an essay title, opportunity to Rubber Stamping 101 Essay interview for a bank teller job at City Bank and catchy title am available at your convenience. Andragogy. I can be reached any time on catchy essay title examples my cell phone at 555-555-5555 or via email at [email] Thank you for how did to power your consideration and I hope to hear from catchy essay examples, soon.
Example 3 – Response to 101 Essay Job Postings and catchy title Classifieds Ads. This bank teller cover letter example is from an individual who has several years’ experience as a teller, but has relocated to a different town and is looking for a job closer to andragogy her new home. She has reviewed job listings in catchy examples, several online publications and is sending out resumes. Dear Human Resources Director: My name is Jackie Jones and I have been employed as a teller at Queens Bank as a teller for the last 2 years. I have recently moved into through the dark continent, New York City and wish to catchy essay examples apply for boots reference one of the bank teller jobs at NYC Bank that are advertised in the NY Times online classified ads. Catchy Examples. I am willing and Malamud Essay able to work at catchy essay title examples any of the city bank branches that have openings. Kl Money. My supervisor at Queens Bank is essay examples aware of my recent move and is also aware that I am now looking for employment in the city.
She has graciously written a reference letter for me which is attached, but she does ask that I give 2 weeks’ notice at Stamping 101 Essay Queens Bank. I have an Associate’s Degree in catchy, Business from changer, Community College in Queens and have gained tremendous experience working at Queens Bank. Along with the basic teller duties your ad indicates that you are looking for essay title someone with experience processing cashier’s checks, handling personal money orders, issuing traveler’s checks and the nazis exchanging foreign currency. These were some of essay examples my duties at how did come Queens Bank and I am already trained in essay examples, these processes. Your ad also indicates that you are looking for someone with extensive customer service experience who can answer customer questions in detail regarding checking and savings accounts and loans. I have experience in these areas as well. I hope you will review my attached resume and the nazis reference letter and contact me if you have questions, wish to discuss my qualifications or would like to schedule an interview. My supervisor has indicated a willingness to catchy allow me time off for an interview.
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Nov 17, 2017 Catchy essay title examples,
obesity essay titles This article appears in the. The Integrity of catchy essay title, Science. Editor’s Note Daniel Sarewitz on why scientists must come out of the lab and into the real world Ivan Oransky and Essay Adam Marcus praise the growing scrutiny of scientific publications Barbara A. Essay! Spellman on the role of technological and Rubber Stamping 101 Essay demographic changes. [Publication of this special section was made possible through the support of a grant to The New Atlantis from the John Templeton Foundation; the opinions expressed are those of the authors and essay do not necessarily reflect the The Natural Malamud Essay views of the John Templeton Foundation.] Daniel Sarewitz Discusses “Saving Science” Enter your e-mail address to catchy essay, receive occasional updates and previews from The New Atlantis . Science isn’t self-correcting, it’s self-destructing. To save the celtic gods enterprise, scientists must come out of the catchy essay examples lab and into the real world. S cience, pride of how did the nazis to power, modernity, our one source of objective knowledge, is in deep trouble. Stoked by fifty years of growing public investments, scientists are more productive than ever, pouring out catchy essay title examples millions of articles in through continent, thousands of journals covering an ever-expanding array of fields and phenomena. But much of this supposed knowledge is turning out to be contestable, unreliable, unusable, or flat-out wrong.
From metastatic cancer to climate change to growth economics to dietary standards, science that is supposed to catchy title, yield clarity and andragogy solutions is in many instances leading instead to contradiction, controversy, and confusion. Along the way it is also undermining the four-hundred-year-old idea that wise human action can be built on a foundation of independently verifiable truths. Science is trapped in a self-destructive vortex; to escape, it will have to catchy title examples, abdicate its protected political status and embrace both its limits and its accountability to the rest of society. The story of how things got to this state is difficult to celtic gods, unravel, in no small part because the scientific enterprise is so well-defended by examples, walls of hype, myth, and denial. But much of the celtic gods problem can be traced back to a bald-faced but beautiful lie upon which rests the political and cultural power of science. This lie received its most compelling articulation just as America was about to embark on an extended period of catchy title examples, extraordinary scientific, technological, and economic growth. The Dark! It goes like this: Scientific progress on a broad front results from the free play of free intellects, working on subjects of their own choice, in catchy essay title examples, the manner dictated by their curiosity for exploration of the unknown. “The free play of free intellects. dictated by their curiosity” So deeply embedded in Rubber, our cultural psyche that it seems like an echo of common sense, this powerful vision of science comes from Vannevar Bush, the M.I.T. engineer who had been the architect of the nation’s World War II research enterprise, which delivered the atomic bomb and helped to advance microwave radar, mass production of antibiotics, and other technologies crucial to the Allied victory. He became justly famous in the process.
Featured on the cover of Time magazine, he was dubbed the “General of Physics.” As the war drew to a close, Bush envisioned transitioning American science to a new era of peace, where top academic scientists would continue to receive the robust government funding they had grown accustomed to catchy title, since Pearl Harbor but would no longer be shackled to the narrow dictates of military need and application, not to mention discipline and secrecy. Instead, as he put it in his July 1945 report Science, The Endless Frontier , by pursuing “research in the purest realms of science” scientists would build the foundation for “new products and Stamping 101 Essay new processes” to deliver health, full employment, and catchy essay title examples military security to the nation. From this perspective, the lie as Bush told it was perhaps less a conscious effort to Rubber, deceive than a seductive manipulation, for political aims, of widely held beliefs about the purity of science. Indeed, Bush’s efforts to establish the conditions for generous and long-term investments in science were extraordinarily successful, with U.S. federal funding for essay title “basic research” rising from $265 million in 1953 to $38 billion in 2012, a twentyfold increase when adjusted for through inflation. Catchy! More impressive still was the increase for basic research at universities and colleges, which rose from $82 million to $24 billion, a more than fortyfold increase when adjusted for inflation. By contrast, government spending on more “applied research” at universities was much less generous, rising to just under $10 billion.
The power of the lie was palpable: “the free play of free intellects” would provide the knowledge that the nation needed to confront the challenges of the future. To go along with all that money, the beautiful lie provided a politically brilliant rationale for public spending with little public accountability. Politicians delivered taxpayer funding to scientists, but only scientists could evaluate the research they were doing. Kl Money Changer! Outside efforts to guide the course of science would only interfere with its free and unpredictable advance. The fruits of curiosity-driven scientific exploration into the unknown have often been magnificent. The recent discovery of gravitational waves an experimental confirmation of Einstein’s theoretical work from a century earlier provided a high-publicity culmination of title, billions of dollars of public spending and decades of research by large teams of scientists. Multi-billion dollar investments in space exploration have yielded similarly startling knowledge about our solar system, such as the recent evidence of flowing water on Mars.
And, speaking of continent, startling, anthropologists and geneticists have used genome-sequencing technologies to offer evidence that early humans interbred with two other hominin species, Neanderthals and Denisovans. Such discoveries heighten our sense of catchy, wonder about the universe and about ourselves. And somehow, it would seem, even as scientific curiosity stokes ever-deepening insight about the fundamental workings of our world, science managed simultaneously to changer, deliver a cornucopia of miracles on the practical side of the equation, just as Bush predicted: digital computers, jet aircraft, cell phones, the Internet, lasers, satellites, GPS, digital imagery, nuclear and catchy essay examples solar power. When Bush wrote his report, nothing made by humans was orbiting the andragogy learning earth; software didn’t exist; smallpox still did. So one might be forgiven for believing that this amazing effusion of technological change truly was the product of “the free play of free intellects, working on title examples subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated by their curiosity for exploration of the unknown.” But one would be mostly wrong. Science has been important for technological development, of course. Scientists have discovered and probed phenomena that turned out to have enormously broad technological applications. But the through the dark continent miracles of modernity in the above list came not from “the free play of examples, free intellects,” but from the leashing of scientific creativity to the technological needs of the U.S. Celtic Gods! Department of Defense (DOD). The story of how DOD mobilized science to help create our world exposes the lie for what it is and provides three difficult lessons that have to be learned if science is to evade the calamity it now faces.
First, scientific knowledge advances most rapidly, and is of most value to society, not when its course is determined by the “free play of free intellects” but when it is steered to solve problems especially those related to essay, technological innovation. Second, when science is not steered to solve such problems, it tends to go off half-cocked in ways that can be highly detrimental to science itself. Third and this is the hardest and how did come to power scariest lesson science will be made more reliable and more valuable for society today not by being protected from societal influences but instead by being brought, carefully and appropriately, into a direct, open, and catchy intimate relationship with those influences. How DOD Gave Science Its Mojo. A lmost immediately after World War II, the Department of through, War soon renamed the Department of Defense began to harness together the complete set of players necessary to ensure the United States would have all the technologies needed to win the Cold War. Catchy Examples! This is what President Eisenhower, in 1961, would call the “military-industrial complex” and what today would be termed, more broadly, the “national innovation system.” It includes everything from university laboratories and celtic gods scientists, to the small and large companies that develop and commercialize innovations, to the users of those innovations in catchy, this case, the military itself. DOD was able to catalyze rapid innovation because money was, more or less, no object; the mission ensuring that America’s military technologies were better than anyone else’s was all that mattered. How do you create materials for kl money changer jet engines and fuselages that are lighter and more durable under extreme conditions?
How do you obtain high-resolution images of an enemy’s military facilities from an orbiting satellite? How do you ensure that military communication links can still operate after a nuclear war? These are the types of questions that the military needed to catchy, have answered, questions that demanded advances in how did, fundamental knowledge as well as technological know-how. DOD’s needs provided not just investments in but also a powerful focus for catchy essay title examples advances in continent, basic research in fields ranging from high-energy physics to materials science to fluid dynamics to molecular biology. At the same time, protected from both the logic of the marketplace and the capriciousness of politics by the imperative of national defense, DOD was a demanding customer for some of the most advanced technological products that high-tech corporations could produce. For example, the catchy essay first digital computer built in the mid-1940s to calculate the trajectories of through the dark, artillery shells and used to design the first hydrogen bomb cost about $500,000 (around $4.7 million today), operated billions of times more slowly than modern computers, took up the space of a small bus, and had no immediate commercial application. Who but the Pentagon would buy such a crazy thing? But DOD also supported the catchy title science needed to keep innovation going. In the late 1950s and well into the 1960s, as the role for computers in military affairs was growing but the science wasn’t keeping up, DOD’s Advanced Research Projects Agency essentially created computer science as an celtic gods academic discipline by essay title, funding work at M.I.T., Carnegie Mellon, Stanford, and other institutions. Another example: The earliest jet engines, back in the 1940s, needed to be overhauled about every hundred hours and were forty-five times less fuel-efficient than piston engines. Celtic Gods! Why waste public money on such a technology?
Because military planners knew that jet power promised combat performance greatly superior to planes powered by piston engines. For decades the Air Force and Navy funded research and development in the aircraft industry to catchy essay examples, continually drive improvement of jet engines. Meanwhile, the Boeing Company could take the jet-engine-powered aerial fuel tanker it was developing for the Air Force and use a similar design for its 707 passenger jet, the first truly safe and reliable commercial jet aircraft. And another: ATT’s Bell Labs, where the transistor effect was discovered, could use the demands (and investments) of the Army Signal Corps for smaller and more reliable battlefield communication technologies to improve scientific understanding of semiconducting materials as well as the reliability and performance of transistors. By Bernard Malamud Essay! It was military purchases that kept the new transistor, semiconductor, and integrated-circuit industries afloat in examples, the early and mid-1950s. Through Continent! As historian Thomas Misa explained in his study of DOD’s role in stimulating the development of transistors: “By subsidizing engineering development and the construction of manufacturing facilities . the military catalyzed the establishment of an industrial base” helping to create the technological and industrial backbone for the information age. Essay Title Examples! And new weapons such as missile systems and ever-more powerful nuclear warheads continued to drive the development of and demand for increasingly sophisticated and reliable electronic components such as microprocessors and supercomputers. Today, DOD continues to push rapid innovation in select areas, including robotics (especially for drone warfare) and human enhancement (for example, to to power, improve the battlefield performance of essay examples, soldiers). But through a combination of several factors including excessive bureaucratic growth, interference from The Natural Malamud Congress, and long-term commitments to hugely expensive and troubled weapons systems with little civilian spillover potential, such as missile defense and catchy essay title examples the F-35 joint strike fighter the Pentagon’s creativity and productivity as an innovator has significantly dissipated. Yet the scientific and technological foundations that DOD helped to Rubber, create during the Cold War continue to support the American economy. To take just one example, of the thirteen areas of catchy, technological advance that were essential to the development of the iPhone, eleven including the Rubber Stamping microprocessor, GPS, and the Internet can be traced back to catchy title, vital military investments in research and technological development.
Americans lionize the scientist as head-in-the-clouds genius (the Einstein hero) and come to power the inventor as misfit-in-the-garage genius (the Steve Jobs or Bill Gates hero). Catchy! The discomfiting reality, however, is that much of today’s technological world exists because of DOD’s role in catalyzing and steering science and technology. This was industrial policy, and it worked because it brought all of the players in the innovation game together, disciplined them by kl money, providing strategic, long-term focus for catchy essay their activities, and shielded them from the market rationality that would have doomed almost every crazy, over-expensive idea that today makes the the dark continent world go round. Catchy Title! The great accomplishments of the military-industrial complex did not result from The Natural by Bernard allowing scientists to pursue “subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated by their curiosity,” but by channeling that curiosity toward the solution of problems that DOD wanted to examples, solve. Such goal-driven industrial policies are supposed to be the stuff of celtic gods, Soviet five-year plans, not market-based democracies, and neither scientists nor policymakers have had much of an appetite for recognizing DOD’s role in creating the essay title examples foundations of our modern economy and society. Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie has been a much more appealing explanation, ideologically and politically. Not everyone, however, has been fooled. F ran Visco was diagnosed with breast cancer in 1987. A Philadelphia trial lawyer intimidated by no one, she chose to be treated with a less toxic chemotherapy than the one her doctor recommended.
She also started volunteering for a local breast cancer patient-support group, which soon led to an invitation to the organizing meeting of what came to be called the National Breast Cancer Coalition. NBCC was conceived as a political advocacy organization that would provide a unified voice for The Natural by Bernard Malamud Essay local patient groups across the nation an approach that appealed to Visco’s activist nature. She became the organization’s first president, and has ever since been a national leader for mobilizing science, medicine, policy, and politics around the goal of eliminating the disease. Visco was a child of the lie. “All I knew about science was that it was this pure search for truth and knowledge.” So, logically enough, she and the other activists at NBCC started out by trying to get more money for breast cancer research at the country’s most exalted research organization, the catchy title examples National Institutes of Health’s National Cancer Institute. How Did The Nazis To Power! But Visco was also a child of the Sixties with a penchant for questioning authority, and she wanted to play an active role in figuring out catchy essay title how much money was needed for research and how best to spend it. She and to power her NBCC colleagues identified a community of cancer researchers that they thought were particularly innovative, and catchy title examples brought everyone together in 101 Essay, February 1992 to discuss what was needed to find cures more quickly and how much it would cost.
Together, the essay title advocates and scientists determined that $300 million of new money could be absorbed and well spent by the scientific community a goal that found strong support in Congress. By Bernard Malamud! Meanwhile, Visco and other patient-advocates began to immerse themselves deeply in catchy essay examples, the science so they could “have a seat at the table and figure out how those dollars should be spent.” Through an accident of congressional budgeting, it turned out through the dark that the only way to title, meet the $300 million goal was to have most of the money allocated to the Department of Defense. So in November 1992, Congress appropriated $210 million for learning theory a peer-reviewed breast cancer research program to be administered by title, the Army. The initial plan was to have most of the money transferred to the National Cancer Institute, but when Visco and celtic gods her NBCC colleagues met with NCI officials to discuss how best to spend the new dollars, Director Sam Broder explained how difficult it was to influence the momentum of science because priorities were established by the bottom-up interests of the research community itself. This, Visco said, “gave us absolutely no comfort that he was going to catchy examples, do anything differently.” When Visco went to DOD, “it was a completely different meeting.” With Major General Richard Travis, the theory Army’s research and development director, “it was, ‘you know, we’re the Army, and if you give us a mission, we figure out how to accomplish that mission.’” It was, “‘Ladies, I’m going to lead you into catchy essay examples, battle and we’re going to win the war.’” “At some point, you really have to save a life”: Fran Visco speaks at an NBCC event at the U.S. Capitol in 2007 Nancy Ostertag/Getty Images. Although Visco was at first “terrified” to find herself working with the military, she also found it refreshing and to power empowering a “fantastic collaboration and essay title examples partnership.” NCI leaders had reminded Visco that she was an activist and a patient, not a peer. But Gen.
Travis told her and her colleagues, “You want a seat at the table, I’ll make sure you have a seat at the table.” The Army welcomed the participation of patient-activists in the planning process for the breast cancer program, directly involved them in the final selection of scientific projects to be funded, and eventually even brought them into the processes for reviewing the through the dark merits of various research proposals. DOD’s can-do approach, its enthusiasm about partnering with patient-advocates, and its dedication to solving the problem of breast cancer rather than simply advancing our scientific understanding of the disease won Visco over. Catchy Essay! And it didn’t take long for benefits to learning theory, appear. During its first round of grantmaking in 199394, the program funded research on a new, biologically based targeted breast cancer therapy a project that had already been turned down multiple times by NIH’s peer-review system because the conventional wisdom was that targeted therapies wouldn’t work. The DOD-funded studies led directly to the development of the drug Herceptin, one of the most important advances in breast cancer treatment in recent decades. According to Dennis Slamon, the lead scientist on that project, the essay examples openness of the DOD program to funding projects like his that went against mainstream scientific beliefs was due to the patient-activists. “Absolutely, unequivocally, no question. The scientific community, perhaps even myself included, were skeptical that it was going to be doable that a bunch of laypeople, who weren’t trained in-depth in science, were going to sit at the table and Rubber 101 Essay really be involved in the peer-review process in a meaningful way. And we could not have been more wrong.” There have been few major advances in breast cancer treatment since then, but one of the most promising a targeted therapy called palbociclib was funded by the same DOD program and was approved by the FDA in 2015 after successful clinical trials. Despite the objections of essay title, scientists advising the program, patient-advocates also pushed DOD to ramp up funding for immunological approaches to curing breast cancer, including support for vaccine research too unconventional to through the dark, be supported by either NCI or the pharmaceutical industry. NBCC’s collaboration with DOD exemplifies how science can be steered in directions it would not take if left to scientists alone.
But that turned out not to be enough. Twenty years into the Army’s breast cancer program, Visco found herself deeply frustrated. The Army was providing grants for innovative, high-risk proposals that might not have been funded by NCI. But that’s where the program’s influence ended. What Visco and Gen. Travis had failed to appreciate was that, when it came to breast cancer, the program lacked the key ingredient that made DOD such a successful innovator in other fields: the catchy essay title examples money and control needed to coordinate all the kl money changer players in the innovation system and examples hold them accountable for working toward a common goal.
And so, as NBCC and other groups brought more and more money into the research system through their effective lobbying campaigns, it grew clear to Rubber 101 Essay, Visco that the main beneficiaries were individual scientists attracted by examples, the new funding not breast cancer patients. To be sure, the DOD support for innovative research is how did come to power “better than what’s happening at NCI and NIH, but it’s not better enoug h . Title Examples! it’s innovation within the by Bernard Malamud existing system.” Ultimately, “all the money that was thrown at breast cancer created more problems than success,” Visco says. What seemed to drive many of the essay scientists was the desire to “get above the The Natural by Bernard Essay fold on the front page of the New York Times ,” not to figure out how to catchy, end breast cancer. Kl Money Changer! It seemed to her that creativity was being stifled as researchers displayed “a lemming effect,” chasing abundant research dollars as they rushed from one hot but ultimately fruitless topic to another. Catchy Essay Title Examples! “We got tired of Rubber Stamping, seeing so many people build their careers around one gene or one protein,” she says.
Visco has a scientist’s understanding of the catchy essay examples extraordinary complexity of breast cancer and the difficulties of making progress toward a cure. But when it got to the point where NBCC had helped bring $2 billion to the DOD program, she started asking: “And what? And what is there to show? You want to do this science and wha t ?” “At some point,” Visco says, “you really have to andragogy learning theory, save a life.” The Measure of Progress. F or much of catchy essay, human history, technology advanced through craftsmanship and trial-and-error tinkering, with little theoretical understanding. The systematic study of nature what we today call science was a distinct domain, making little or no contribution to technological development. Yet technology has contributed in andragogy theory, obvious ways to catchy title examples, scientific advance for centuries, as practical tools such as lenses, compasses, and clocks allowed scientists to study nature with ever greater accuracy and resolution. The relationship only started to swing both ways, with science contributing to technological advancement as well as benefiting from it, in Stamping 101 Essay, the nineteenth century as, for example, organic chemistry both emerged from and title examples found application in the German dye-making industry.
And as the Industrial Revolution came to link technological innovation to historically unprecedented economic growth, scientists began to make many important contributions to fundamental knowledge by studying phenomena whose existence was brought to light only because of the new technologies of an industrializing world. Efforts to improve the performance of steam engines, wine manufacturing, steel-making, and by Bernard Malamud Essay telephone communication to name just a few guided much scientific inquiry, and, in some cases led to entirely new fields of basic research, such as thermodynamics, bacteriology, and radio astronomy. New technologies also provided discipline and focus for areas of fundamental science that had been progressing slowly, as vaccines did for immunology and airplanes did for theoretical aerodynamics. Science has been such a wildly successful endeavor over the past two hundred years in large part because technology blazed a path for it to follow. Not only have new technologies created new worlds, new phenomena, and new questions for science to explore, but technological performance has provided a continuous, unambiguous demonstration of the validity of the science being done. The electronics industry and essay examples semiconductor physics progressed hand-in-hand not because scientists, working “in the manner dictated by their curiosity for learning theory exploration of the unknown,” kept lobbing new discoveries over the lab walls that then allowed transistor technology to advance, but because the quest to improve technological performance constantly raised new scientific questions and title examples demanded advances in our understanding of the behavior of celtic gods, electrons in different types of materials. Or, again, consider how the rapid development of computers beginning in catchy essay examples, the 1950s, catalyzed by DOD, led to the demand for new types of come to power, theories and knowledge about how to acquire, store, and process digital information a new science for essay title examples a new technology. Thirty years later, computer scientists were probing phenomena in a rapidly developing technological realm that had never existed before cyberspace and the World Wide Web and were asking questions that could never have been imagined, let alone answered, before. The National Science Foundation funded basic research into this new, technology-created realm, including grants to two graduate students in computer science at Stanford University who wanted to understand how best to navigate the novel and expanding landscape of digital information. Kl Money! They published their results in catchy essay title examples, the 1998 article “The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine.” The abstract begins: “In this paper, we present Google . ” the web-search protocol that led to the corporate empire whose technologies are today woven into the fabric of daily life, and by Bernard whose economic and social influence is every bit as powerful as the great railroad, steel, automobile, and catchy essay examples telecommunications corporations of kl money, previous technological revolutions. Technology led; science followed.
If, as Visco says, “at some point you really have to save a life,” it will be a technology, perhaps a vaccine or drug, that does the job. Catchy Title! Technology is what links science to human experience; it is kl money what makes science real for us. A light switch, a jet aircraft, or a measles vaccine, these are cause-and-effect machines that turn phenomena that can be described by science the flow of electrons, the movement of air molecules, the stimulation of antibodies into reliable outcomes: the light goes on, the jet flies, the child becomes immune. The scientific phenomena must be real or the technologies would not work. Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie makes it easy to believe that scientific imagination gives birth to technological progress, when in reality technology sets the essay examples agenda for science, guiding it in its most productive directions and providing continual tests of its validity, progress, and celtic gods value. Absent their real-world validation through technology, scientific truths would be mere abstractions. Here is where the lie exercises its most corrupting power: If we think that scientific progress is best pursued by “the free play of free intellects,” we give science a free pass to define progress without reference to the world beyond it.
But if there is nothing by which to measure scientific progress outside of science itself, how can we know when our knowledge is advancing, standing still, or moving backwards? It turns out that we cannot. Einstein, We Have a Problem. T he science world has been buffeted for nearly a decade by growing revelations that major bodies of scientific knowledge, published in peer-reviewed papers, may simply be wrong. Among recent instances: a cancer cell line used as the basis for over a thousand published breast cancer research studies was revealed to be actually a skin cancer cell line; a biotechnology company was able to essay examples, replicate only continent, six out of fifty-three “landmark” published studies it sought to validate; a test of more than one hundred potential drugs for treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in mice was unable to title examples, reproduce any of the positive findings that had been reported from previous studies; a compilation of kl money, nearly one hundred fifty clinical trials for therapies to block human inflammatory response showed that even though the therapies had supposedly been validated using mouse model experiments, every one of the trials failed in humans; a statistical assessment of the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map human brain function indicated that up to 70 percent of the positive findings reported in approximately 40,000 published fMRI studies could be false; and an article assessing the catchy essay examples overall quality of basic and preclinical biomedical research estimated that between 75 and 90 percent of all studies are not reproducible. Meanwhile, a painstaking effort to assess the quality of one hundred peer-reviewed psychology experiments was able to replicate only 39 percent of the original papers’ results; annual mammograms, once the frontline of the war on breast cancer, have been shown to confer little benefit for women in their forties; and, of course, we’ve all been relieved to learn after all these years that saturated fat actually isn’t that bad for us. The number of retracted scientific publications rose tenfold during the first decade of this century, and although that number still remains in the mere hundreds, the Stamping 101 Essay growing number of studies such as those mentioned above suggests that poor quality, unreliable, useless, or invalid science may in catchy essay examples, fact be the norm in Stamping, some fields, and the number of catchy, scientifically suspect or worthless publications may well be counted in the hundreds of thousands annually.
While most of the through continent evidence of poor scientific quality is coming from fields related to health, biomedicine, and psychology, the problems are likely to be as bad or worse in many other research areas. For example, a survey of statistical practices in economics research concluded that “the credibility of the economics literature is likely to be modest or even low.” What is to be made of this ever-expanding litany of dispiriting revelations and reversals? Well, one could celebrate. Essay Title! “Instances in which scientists detect and address flaws in work constitute evidence of The Natural Malamud Essay, success, not failure,” a group of catchy examples, leaders of the celtic gods American science establishment including the past, present, and future presidents of the National Academy of essay examples, Sciences wrote in Science in 2015, “because they demonstrate the underlying protective mechanisms of Rubber, science at work.” But this happy posture ignores the systemic failings at the heart of science’s problems today. When it works, science is catchy essay examples a process of creating new knowledge about the world, knowledge that helps us understand how what we thought we knew was incomplete or even wrong.
This picture of andragogy learning theory, success doesn’t mean, however, that we should reasonably expect that most scientific results are unreliable or invalid at the moment they are published. What it means, instead, is that the results of research however imperfect are reliable in the context of the essay title existing state of 101 Essay, knowledge, and are thus a definite step toward a better understanding of catchy essay title, our world and Malamud Essay a solid foundation for further research. In many areas of research, such expectations do not seem justified, and science may actually be moving backwards. Catchy Essay! Richard Horton, editor-in-chief of The Lancet , puts it like this: The case against science is straightforward: much of the scientific literature, perhaps half, may simply be untrue. Continent! Afflicted by studies with small sample sizes, tiny effects, invalid exploratory analyses, and flagrant conflicts of interest, together with an obsession for pursuing fashionable trends of dubious importance, science has taken a turn towards darkness. C. Glenn Begley and John Ioannidis researchers who have been courageous and visionary in exposing systemic weakness in biomedical science concluded in a January 2015 article that “it is catchy essay title examples impossible to endorse an by Bernard Malamud approach that suggests that we proceed with an ongoing research investment that is title producing results the majority of which cannot be substantiated and will not stand the test of time.” Similarly, an economic analysis published in June 2015 estimates that $28 billion per year is wasted on how did the nazis come to power biomedical research that is title unreproducible. 101 Essay! Science isn’t self-correcting; it’s self-destructing.
Part of the problem surely has to do with the pathologies of the science system itself. Academic science, especially, has become an onanistic enterprise worthy of Swift or Kafka. As a university scientist you are expected to produce a continual stream of startling and catchy essay title newsworthy findings. Celtic Gods! Here’s how the great biologist E. Catchy Essay Title Examples! O. Wilson describes the life of an academic researcher: You will need forty hours a week to perform teaching and administrative duties, another twenty hours on Rubber 101 Essay top of that to conduct respectable research, and catchy still another twenty hours to accomplish really important research. Make an important discovery, and you are a successful scientist in the true, elitist sense in a profession where elitism is practiced without shame. Fail to discover, and you are little or nothing. The professional incentives for academic scientists to assert their elite status are perverse and crazy, and promotion and tenure decisions focus above all on how many research dollars you bring in, how many articles you get published, and how often those articles are cited in other articles. To bring in research grants, you need to show that your previous grants yielded “transformative” results and that your future work will do the same.
To get papers published, you need to cite related publications that provide support for your hypotheses and findings. Meanwhile, the by Bernard Malamud Essay peers who review funding proposals and catchy essay title examples journal articles are playing in the same system, competing for the same funds, motivated by the same incentives. To get the research done you need graduate students and postdoctoral fellows to do most of the grunt work of running experiments and the dark collecting data, which is how they get trained and acculturated to become the next generation of catchy title examples, academic scientists behaving the same way. Universities competing desperately for top faculty, the best graduate students, and government research funds hype for the news media the results coming out of their laboratories, encouraging a culture in which every scientist claims to be doing path-breaking work that will solve some urgent social problem. (Scientists themselves are complicit in the hype machine: according to one study, the frequency of positive words like “innovative,” “novel,” “robust,” and “unprecedented” in biomedical research publications in kl money, 2014 was nearly nine times as high as it was forty years earlier.) The scientific publishing industry exists not to disseminate valuable information but to allow the ever-increasing number of researchers to publish more papers now on essay title the order of the nazis, a couple million peer-reviewed articles per year so that they can advance professionally. Catchy Essay Examples! As of 2010, about 24,000 peer-reviewed scientific journals were being published worldwide to accommodate this demand. These figures would not have shocked the Stamping historian of science and examples physicist Derek de Solla Price, who more than half a century ago observed that “science is so large that many of us begin to worry about the sheer mass of the monster we have created.” In his book Little Science, Big Science (1963), Price noted presciently that the number of scientists was growing so fast that it could only lead to kl money changer, a “scientific doomsday” of instability and catchy title examples stress, and that exponential growth of the scientific enterprise would bring with it declining scientific originality and quality, as the how did come number of truly great scientists was progressively drowned out by the much more rapidly increasing number of merely competent ones.
One cumulative result of title, these converging stresses (a result that Price did not anticipate) is a well-recognized pervasive bias that infects every corner of the the nazis basic research enterprise a bias toward the new result. Bias is an inescapable attribute of human intellectual endeavor, and catchy essay title it creeps into science in many different ways, from bad statistical practices to poor experimental or model design to mere wishful thinking. Stamping 101 Essay! If biases are random then they should more or less balance each other out through multiple studies. But as numerous close observers of the scientific literature have shown, there are powerful sources of essay title, bias that push in changer, one direction: come up with a positive result, show something new, different, eye-catching, transformational, something that announces you as part of the essay examples elite. Yet, to fixate on systemic positive bias in an out-of-control research system is to miss the deeper and much more important point. The reason that bias seems able to celtic gods, infect research so easily today is that so much of science is detached from the goals and agendas of the military-industrial innovation system, which long gave research its focus and discipline. Nothing is left to essay, keep research honest save the internal norms of the professional, peer-review system itself. And how well are those norms holding up? A survey of more than 1,500 scientists published by Nature in May 2016 shows that 80 percent or more believe that scientific practice is being undermined by such factors as “selective reporting” of data, publication pressure, poor statistical analysis, insufficient attention to replication, and inadequate peer review. Kl Money! In short, we are finding out catchy essay what happens when objective inquiry is guided by Bush’s beautiful lie. “Scientific doomsday” indeed.
Lemmings Studying Mice. A neuroscientist by training, Susan Fitzpatrick worries a lot about science and what Price called the “sheer mass of the monster.” “The scientific enterprise used to be small, and in any particular area of research everyone knew each other; it had this sort of artisanal quality,” she says. Rubber Stamping 101 Essay! “But gradually the system became more professionalized, it got more and more money, it made bigger and bigger promises. Examples! So the qualities that make scientific research reliable, honest, got undermined by the need to feed the beast, and the system got too big to kl money changer, succeed.” She worries especially about what this change will mean for the quality and value of the science being done in catchy essay title examples, her field. As president of the celtic gods James S. McDonnell Foundation, which funds research on cognition and the brain, Fitzpatrick is concerned about where research dollars are flowing. Catchy Examples! Just as Visco observed what she called the “lemming effect” researchers running from celtic gods one hot topic to the next Fitzpatrick also sees science as driven by a circular, internal logic. “What the researcher really wants is something reliable that yields to their methods,” something that “can produce a reliable stream of data, because you need to have your next publication, your next grant proposal.” For example, scientists commonly use mouse brains to study neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s, or to study behavioral problems such as addictiveness or attention deficit disorders. Catchy Essay Title Examples! What’s great about through mice is that they yield to scientists’ methods. They can be bred in virtually limitless quantity, with particular traits designed into essay title examples, them, such as a gene mutation that triggers Alzheimer’s-like symptoms. Andragogy Learning! This allows researchers to test specific hypotheses about, say, the genetics or neurochemistry of catchy title, a mouse-brain disease. More than one hundred different strains of mice have been developed for the purpose of studying Alzheimer’s, and The Natural by Bernard numerous chemical compounds have been shown to slow the course of Alzheimer’s-like symptoms in mice. Yet despite the proliferation of mouse and other animal models, only one out of 244 compounds that made it to the trial stage in the decade between 2002 and 2012 was approved by the FDA as a treatment for humans a 99.6 percent failure rate, and even the one drug approved for use in catchy essay title, humans during that period doesn’t work very well.
And why should it be otherwise? The last common ancestor of humans and mice lived 80 million years ago. “You’re using animals that don’t develop neurodegenerative disease on Rubber their own,” explains Fitzpatrick. “Even aged mice don’t develop Alzheimer’s disease.” So researchers force some characteristic to develop such as beta-amyloid plaques on the mouse’s brain, or age-related cognitive decline but that’s not the same as the examples human disease in question, “because the process whereby you create that model is not the pathogenesis of the how did come to power disease. Your treatment is focused on catchy examples how you created the model, not how the andragogy learning theory disease occurs naturally.” There is title examples little reason to believe that what’s being learned from these animal models will put us on changer the right path to understanding let alone curing human brain disorders. Not that such concerns are likely to put a damper on the research. A search for catchy title examples article titles or abstracts containing the through continent words “brain” and “mouse” (or “mice” or “murine”) in catchy title, the NIH’s PubMed database yields over by Bernard Malamud 50,000 results for the decade between 2005 and catchy title examples 2015 alone. If you add the word “rat” to the mix, the number climbs to changer, about 80,000. It’s a classic case of looking for catchy title examples your keys under the streetlight because that’s where the light is: the science is done just because it can be. The results get published and they get cited and that creates, Fitzpatrick says, “the sense that we’re gaining knowledge when we’re not gaining knowledge.” But it’s worse than that. Stamping 101 Essay! Scientists cite one another’s papers because any given research finding needs to be justified and interpreted in catchy title examples, terms of other research being done in related areas one of those “underlying protective mechanisms of science.” But what if much of the science getting cited is, itself, of celtic gods, poor quality? Consider, for example, a 2012 report in Science showing that an Alzheimer’s drug called bexarotene would reduce beta-amyloid plaque in mouse brains.
Efforts to reproduce that finding have since failed, as Science reported in February 2016. But in the meantime, the paper has been cited in about 500 other papers, many of which may have been cited multiple times in turn. In this way, poor-quality research metastasizes through the examples published scientific literature, and distinguishing knowledge that is reliable from knowledge that is unreliable or false or simply meaningless becomes impossible. A scientific model allows you to study a simplified version, or isolated characteristics, of a complex phenomenon. Kl Money Changer! This simplification is sometimes justified, for instance, if the cause-and-effect relations being studied in the model (say, the response of an airfoil to turbulence in a wind tunnel) operate in the same way in catchy essay, the more complex context (an airplane flying through a storm).
In such cases you can have some confidence that what you’ve learned from the model can be applied to the actual problem at hand. Fitzpatrick thinks that such reasoning is Rubber Stamping 101 Essay not justified when using mouse brains to model human neurodegenerative disease. But her concerns about catchy this way of approaching brain science have more devastating implications when the models are extended still further to explore the neurological aspects of human behavioral dysfunction: Because these questions are incredibly complex and we’re trying to reduce it to celtic gods, some biological models, you have to create proxies. A neuroscientist can’t directly study what makes somebody commit a crime, so instead they say, “Oh I know what it is, these people have a lack of inhibitory control.” So now that’s something I can put my arm around, so I need a task that I can reliably deliver in the laboratory as a marker for inhibitory control. “Oh, and we have one, there’s this reaction-time task . Title! ” Now we’re studying something, calling it something else, creating a causal hypothesis about people’s behavior that’s made up of Rubber 101 Essay, tenuous links. The problem, as Fitzpatrick explains it, is that in this space between the examples proxy say, measuring inhibitory control in a mouse, or for the nazis that matter a person and a complex behavior, such as drug addiction, lies a theory about catchy essay title what causes crime and addiction and anti-social behavior. The theory “has ideological underpinnings. It shapes the the nazis kind of questions that get asked, the way research gets structured, the findings that get profiled, the person that gets asked to catchy essay examples, give the big speech.” Fitzpatrick is observing what happens when the interplay between science and technology is celtic gods replaced by the “free play of free intellects.” Scientists can never escape the influence of human bias. But human bias doesn’t have much room to get a foothold when research is tightly linked to the performance of a particular technology through, say, the desire for lighter, stronger automobile engines, or for faster, more efficient web search engines. Technology keeps science honest.
But for subjects that are incredibly complex, such as Alzheimer’s disease and criminal behavior, the essay title connection between scientific knowledge and technology is tenuous and mediated by many assumptions assumptions about how science works (mouse brains are good models for human brains); about kl money changer how society works (criminal behavior is caused by brain chemistry); or about how technology works (drugs that modify brain chemistry are a good way to change criminal behavior). The assumptions become invisible parts of the way scientists design experiments, interpret data, and apply their findings. The result is ever more elaborate theories theories that remain self-referential, and unequal to the task of finding solutions to human problems. All this may go some way toward explaining why the rate of failure of pharmaceutical interventions for Alzheimer’s is so high. When mouse models are used to explore theories of human brain health and behavior, there is no reliable way to assess the catchy examples validity of the science or the assumptions underlying it. This is not to say that scientists should just start conducting on through continent humans the experiments they now perform on mice. Title! But as Fitzpatrick emphasizes, the huge amount of mouse-brain research now being done is a reflection of the internal dysfunction of the research system, not of the potential for the “free play of free intellects” to help alleviate the human suffering caused by neurological disease and dysfunction. But Is It Science? P roblems of values, assumptions, and celtic gods ideology are not limited to neuroscience but are pervasive across the scientific enterprise.
Just as Derek Price recognized the threat to science from essay examples its unsustainable growth decades before the symptoms became painfully apparent, so was the threat of ideology in science flagged long ago by The Natural Malamud, the physicist Alvin Weinberg. A bona fide member of the military-industrial complex, Weinberg ran the Oak Ridge National Laboratory originally part of the Manhattan Project and examples was a tireless advocate for nuclear energy. Involved as he was in Stamping 101 Essay, the early political debates over nuclear power, he was concerned about the limits of what science could tell us about complex social and political issues. In his 1972 article “Science and Trans-Science,” Weinberg observed that society would increasingly be calling upon science to understand and address the complex problems of modernity many of which, of course, could be traced back to science and catchy title technology. But he accompanied this recognition with a much deeper and more powerful insight: that such problems “hang on the answers to questions that can be asked of science and yet which cannot be answered by science .” He called research into such questions “trans-science.” If traditional sciences aim for Rubber Stamping 101 Essay precise and reliable knowledge about natural phenomena, trans-science pursues realities that are contingent or in flux. Essay Examples! The objects and phenomena studied by trans-science populations, economies, engineered systems depend on many different things, including the particular conditions under which they are studied at through continent a given time and place, and the choices that researchers make about catchy essay title how to through continent, define and study them. This means that the objects and phenomena studied by trans-science are never absolute but instead are variable, imprecise, uncertain and essay examples thus always potentially subject to interpretation and debate. By contrast, Weinberg argues, natural sciences such as physics and chemistry study objects that can be characterized by andragogy theory, a small number of measurable variables. For example, in classical physics, once the position, velocity, and forces acting on a physical object are known, the movement of that object be it a pebble or a planet may be predicted. Examples! (This is not the case in quantum physics, in which the position and velocity of individual particles can no longer be measured simultaneously with precision. But, Weinberg points out, “even in quantum physics, we can make precise predictions” about statistical distributions of the dark continent, molecules or atoms or particles.) Moreover, the objects of study whether the mass of an catchy title electron, the structure of a molecule, or the energy released by a chemical reaction can be precisely defined and Stamping unambiguously characterized in ways that all scientists can generally agree upon. As Weinberg puts it: “Every hydrogen atom is the same as every other hydrogen atom.”
This combination of predictable behavior and catchy essay title examples invariant fundamental attributes is Malamud what makes the physical sciences so valuable in contributing to essay examples, technological advance the electron, the photon, the chemical reaction, the crystalline structure, when confined to the controlled environment of the laboratory or the engineered design of a technology, behaves as it is supposed to behave pretty much all the time. But many other branches of science study things that cannot be unambiguously characterized and that may not behave predictably even under controlled conditions things like a cell or a brain, or a particular site in the brain, or a tumor, or a psychological condition. Or a species of bird. Or a toxic waste dump. Or a classroom. Or “the economy.” Or the earth’s climate. Such things may differ from one day to the next, from one place or one person to another. Their behavior cannot be described and predicted by kl money changer, the sorts of general laws that physicists and chemists call upon, since their characteristics are not invariable but rather depend on catchy essay title examples the context in which they are studied and the way they are defined.
Of course scientists work hard to come up with useful ways to The Natural Essay, characterize the things they study, like using the notion of essay title examples, a species to classify biologically distinct entities, or GDP to define the scale of a nation’s economy, or IQ to measure a person’s intelligence, or biodiversity to assess the health of an ecosystem, or global average atmospheric temperature to assess climate change. Or they use statistics to characterize the behavior of a heterogeneous class of things, for example the rate of accidents of Stamping 101 Essay, drivers of a certain age, or the incidence of a certain kind of cancer in people with a certain occupation, or the likelihood of essay examples, a certain type of tumor to metastasize in kl money changer, a mouse or a person. But these ways of naming and describing objects and essay examples phenomena always come with a cost the cost of being at best only an approximation of the complex reality. Thus scientists can breed a strain of mouse that tends to how did the nazis come to power, display loss of cognitive function with aging, and the similarities between different mice of that strain may approximate the kind of homogeneity possessed by the objects studied by physics and chemistry. This makes the mouse a useful subject for research.
But we must bear the cost of title examples, that usefulness: the connection between the phenomena studied in that mouse strain and the more complex phenomena of human diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, is tenuous or even, as Susan Fitzpatrick worries, nonexistent. For Weinberg, who wanted to advance the case for civilian nuclear power, calculating the probability of a catastrophic nuclear reactor accident was a prime example of a trans-scientific problem. “Because the probability is so small, there is no practical possibility of determining this failure rate directly i.e., by building, let us say, 1,000 reactors, operating them for 10,000 years and tabulating their operating histories.” Instead of science, we are left with a mélange of science, engineering, values, assumptions, and Rubber Stamping 101 Essay ideology. Thus, as Weinberg explains, trans-scientific debate “inevitably weaves back and forth across the boundary between what is and what is not known and knowable.” More than forty years and three major reactor accidents later, scientists and advocates, fully armed with data and research results, continue to debate the title risks and promise of nuclear power. To ensure that science does not become completely infected with bias and personal opinion, Weinberg recognized that it would be essential for scientists to Rubber, “establish what the limits of essay examples, scientific fact really are, where science ends and trans-science begins.” But doing so would require “the kind of selfless honesty which a scientist or engineer with a position or status to maintain finds hard to exercise.” Moreover, this is “not at all easy since experts will often disagree as to the extent and reliability of their expertise.” Weinberg’s pleas for “selfless honesty” in drawing the lines of expertise have gone largely unheeded, as scientists have, over the past forty years, generally sought not to distinguish trans-science from science but to try through what amounts to a modern sort of alchemy to Rubber 101 Essay, transmute trans-science into science. Title! In fact, the learning great thing about trans-science is that you can keep on catchy doing research; you can, as Fitzpatrick says, create “the sense that we’re gaining knowledge when we’re not gaining knowledge,” without getting any closer to a final or useful answer. In the absence of a technological application that can select for useful truths that work in the real world of light switches, vaccines, and aircraft, there is often no “right” way to discriminate among or organize the mass of truths scientists create. This is why, to take another endlessly contested example, after decades of intensive research about the effects of through the dark, salt reduction on health, there is much less clarity today than in 1972, when a paper reported: “The evidence that salt induces permanent and essay title examples fatal hypertension is direct, quantitative, and unequivocal in the rat.” Four decades later, the head of the Centers for Disease Control and kl money Prevention was affirming that one hundred thousand deaths per year in the United States can be attributed to too much dietary sodium, even as a major meta-analysis of 167 randomized controlled trials and 13 population studies since 1950 found no clear connection between salt reduction and health outcomes. Catchy Essay Title! Scientists and interest groups line up on both sides of the salt debate, avidly impugning the Stamping motives and research of those they disagree with. The profusion of partial truths, each defended by its own set of experts, is what comes to essay title examples, pass when science tries to answer trans-scientific questions like: Are genetically engineered crops necessary for celtic gods feeding a burgeoning global population? Does exposure to Bisphenol A (or any of ten thousand other synthetic chemicals) adversely affect childhood development or otherwise harm human health?
Do open markets benefit all trading partners? What will be the future economic costs of a warming climate to a particular nation or region? Does standardized testing improve educational outcomes? Why is obesity rising in America, and what can be done about it? If both scientific research and political debates over such questions seem to essay title, drag on come endlessly, surely one reason is catchy examples that we have the through the dark wrong expectations of science. Our common belief is that scientific truth is a unitary thing there is one fact of the matter, that’s why the light always goes on when I flip the switch. Catchy Examples! But trans-scientific questions often reveal multiple truths, depending in part on what aspects of an issue scientists decide to do research on and how they go about doing that research. There is no point in how did the nazis to power, asking who is right in such cases; the best we can hope for catchy essay title examples is to understand why experts are disagreeing, which often hinges on highly technical choices about how to carry out research and how did the nazis come analyze data, not to mention the essay title examples hidden biases that help determine those choices. Consider the question “Are genetically modified crops more productive than conventional crops?” Some researchers prefer to answer this question by andragogy, looking at field trials that allow variables like weather and title soil type to be carefully controlled.
Others prefer surveys of actual farms, because they reflect real-world variability. These two approaches often yield contradictory results, and celtic gods there is no way of adjudicating based on the data which of the catchy two provides a better guide to the future. Sometimes the problem is not that it is by Bernard hard to come up with facts, but that it is all too easy. Catchy Essay Title Examples! This is why science almost never provides a solution to politically controversial issues. The Dark! Usually it does the essay examples opposite, providing peer-reviewed and thus culturally validated truths that can be selected and assembled in learning theory, whatever ways are necessary to catchy essay title, support the position and policy solution of your choice.
If this observation seems implausible or overstated, consider that after forty years of research on the risks and benefits of mammograms, their effectiveness is more contested than ever; similarly, after more than twenty-five years and $15 billion of research to assess the safety of the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository site in Stamping 101 Essay, Nevada, nothing has resulted beyond political gridlock. In neither case does the science add up to a unitary truth. What we have, instead, is trans-science that “weaves back and essay title forth across the boundary between what is and what is not known and knowable.” There is a very good reason why the celtic gods problem of catchy essay, poor-quality science is showing up most conspicuously in biomedical research. Even as government funding for biomedical science in the United States equals that of all other fields of research combined, diseases remain uncured, pharmaceutical innovation has slowed to a crawl, and corporate investments are extremely risky because of the Rubber Stamping staggering failure rates of new drug trials. Biomedical science is failing the truth-test of technology. But the title examples more difficult and dangerous threat to The Natural Essay, science comes from areas of research where the stakes are high but the catchy essay validity of the science cannot be determined precisely because it is not closely tied to technological progress toward a specific, shared goal (like curing breast cancer). In these cases, science delivers partial truths, any one of which can advance the career of a researcher and attract a constituency of believers among scientists, political interest groups, and members of the public alike.
Even the vaunted scientific consensus around climate change which largely rests on Stamping 101 Essay fundamental physics that has been well understood for more than a century applies only to a narrow claim about the discernible human impact on global warming. Essay Title! The minute you get into through the dark continent, questions about the rate and severity of future impacts, or the costs of and best pathways for addressing them, no semblance of consensus among experts remains. Mathematical models of future rates and consequences of climate change are highly sensitive to assumptions about things that are totally unpredictable (such as trends in economic growth or technological innovation), and so the models spew out endless streams of trans-scientific facts that allow for claims and counterclaims, all apparently sanctioned by essay, science, about how urgent the problem is and what needs to be done. Andragogy Theory! If we were instead to exercise the title examples “selfless honesty” advocated by Weinberg and own up to the assumptions that led us to the results of the climate (or mouse) models, then we would have to abandon any claim to an absolute, scientific truth that gives those results their legitimacy in society. T hese difficulties are about to get much worse. Many fields of science are now staking their futures on what is sometimes called “big data” the creation of enormous new data sets enabled by new technological tools for collecting, storing, and analyzing virtually infinite amounts of information. So, for example, we are told that President Obama’s Brain Initiative will “open new doors to explore how the brain records, processes, uses, stores, and retrieves vast quantities of information, and shed light on the complex links between brain function and behavior.” The Obama administration’s Precision Medicine Initiative will “tailor treatment and prevention strategies to people’s unique characteristics, including their genome sequence, microbiome composition, health history, lifestyle, and diet.” The international Future Earth project will seek “to observe, monitor, explain and model the state of the planet and its societies,” so that decision-makers can “move towards prediction and The Natural by Bernard informed management of the Earth system.” The National Ecological Observatory Network will seek the same for ecosystems by deploying “measurement infrastructure and cyberinfrastructure that deliver standardized, calibrated data to catchy essay title, the scientific community through a single, openly accessible data portal.” The Ocean Observatories Initiative will “measure the physical, chemical, geological, and biological variables in the ocean and seafloor . for improved detection and forecasting of through the dark continent, environmental changes and their effects on biodiversity, coastal ecosystems, and climate.” The imperative of technological advance focuses scientific inquiry, and provides a test for catchy examples the validity of celtic gods, new scientific knowledge. Big data does the essay examples opposite, casting science into a sea of data with few constraints on where it might drift.
The difficulty with this way of Stamping, doing science is that for any large body of catchy, data pertaining to a complex problem with many variables, the number of possible causal links between variables is kl money inestimably larger than the number a scientist could actually think up and test. For example, researchers have identified more than a hundred variables that may influence obesity, from title genes to education to job stress to how fast you eat to whether you were breastfed. Theory! Exploring the essay title examples relations between even some small number of combined variables would give you billions of possible hypotheses to test. The likelihood that you will happen upon one that reveals important causal relations is thus extremely small, while the opportunities for introducing bias or discovering meaningless correlations abound. So even if you get a positive result, it will likely be spurious. As John Ioannidis explains in his famous 2005 article “Why Most Published Research Findings Are False,” the Rubber problem of searching for a small number of catchy title, possible true relationships in large data sets “totally reverses the way we view scientific results. Traditionally, investigators have viewed large and highly significant effects with excitement, as signs of important discoveries. Too large and too highly significant effects may actually be more likely to be signs of large bias in most fields of modern research.” But no matter once you have a positive finding, the web puts the world’s scientific literature at your beck and call, and you can effortlessly trawl for peer-reviewed published papers to lend credibility to your discovery. And even if you do happen to confirm a real causal link, for it to be useful you would probably have to connect it to other such links, each of which is itself unlikely to The Natural, be true. Perhaps obese people with less education, more job stress, and a specific genetic marker do eat more quickly than others, but the reason they are obese may be due to something else entirely, say, not having time to exercise because they live far from work. If mouse models are like looking for catchy essay examples your keys under the street lamp, big data is kl money like looking all over catchy essay title examples the world for your keys because you can even if you don’t know what they look like or where you might have dropped them or whether they actually fit your lock.
So another reason why biomedical science is kl money out in title, front of other fields in terms of revelations of changer, irreproducibility and false results may be that it staked its future on big data earlier than other areas of catchy essay title, science especially through mapping of the andragogy theory human genome, which pretty much everyone agrees has been an incredibly powerful catalyst for scientific research while generating unfathomably huge amounts of data but, at best, yielding modest health care benefits. As Michelle Gittelman, a professor of essay, management at Rutgers University who studies pharmaceutical innovation, puts it in kl money changer, a recent paper: The biotechnology revolution was bound to essay, fail, given the limits of predictive science to solve problems in through continent, complex natural phenomena. Catchy Essay! [T]he experience of genetics in medical research has demonstrated that a moving frontier in the dark continent, scientific knowledge does not translate to a corresponding advance in technological innovation. Indeed, she suggests that “the application of genetics and molecular science to medical discovery could hinder, rather than accelerate, progress.” The situation with regard to cancer is summed up in a 2014 essay in the journal Cell by catchy essay examples, M.I.T.’s Robert Weinberg, a leading cancer researcher: “The data that we now generate overwhelm our abilities of interpretation, and the attempts of the new discipline of ‘systems biology’ to address this shortfall have to date produced few insights into cancer biology beyond those revealed by simple, home-grown intuition.” Blinded by the lie, enthralled by kl money changer, the power of new technologies not to solve discrete problems but to catchy essay examples, gather, store, test, and analyze billions of terabytes of data about everything that goes on come anywhere from Earth’s core to the human brain to essay examples, the outer atmosphere and religiously dedicated to the notion that more information, more peer-reviewed publications, and more funding is always a step in kl money, the right direction, whatever direction that may be, the scientific community and its supporters are now busily creating the infrastructure and the expectations that can make unreliability, knowledge chaos, and multiple conflicting truths the catchy essay title examples essence of science’s legacy.
Science is in a pincer grip, squeezed between revelations that entire areas of scientific inquiry are no good, and the willy-nilly production of unverifiable knowledge relevant to the unanswerable questions of trans-science. Even as the resulting chaos compromises technological progress aimed at, say, preventing or curing breast cancer the andragogy theory boundary between objective truth and catchy essay title examples subjective belief appears, gradually and terrifyingly, to be dissolving. Managing for Truth. F or twenty years Jeff Marqusee had to by Bernard Essay, come up with practical solutions to environmental problems for the Department of Defense. His approach was nothing short of catchy essay examples, heresy. “You want to actually manage research.” With a Ph.D. from M.I.T., Marqusee too is a child of the through the dark lie. “Culturally I was very much trained as a basic scientist. I did statistical physics. Essay Examples! My thesis was about as esoteric and useless as you can be. It was fun.” He genuflects, as we all must, but then moves on: “You don’t need to manage the lone guy that’s brilliant.
That ain’t the problem.” Most scientists aren’t Einstein or E. O. Wilson, and most research doesn’t have the potential by itself to be particularly earth-shattering. If people expect scientific research even basic, long-term research to contribute to a larger goal, there must be some mechanism of accountability for driving it toward that goal. Like Visco and Fitzpatrick, Marqusee thinks that the absence of such accountability has led to “a system which produces far too many publications” and has “too many mouths to feed.” When Marqusee talks about the need to “manage research” he doesn’t mean telling scientists how they should do their work, or even what they should work on; he means making sure that the the nazis science that’s being done makes sense in catchy title, terms of the goal to which it is supposed to by Bernard Malamud Essay, contribute. The types of questions Marqusee needed to have answered at DOD were essentially trans-scientific the necessary truths and effective solutions were contextual, varying from essay examples one situation to the next. Rubber 101 Essay! They were biased toward the local and catchy title specific, rather than career-enhancing discoveries. To figure out, for example, “how to celtic gods, protect my soldiers” from poisons like lead, cadmium, and chromium in the soil on essay military bases, he first had to andragogy theory, understand questions like: How does the dry, poor-quality soil typical of many military bases affect soldiers’ exposure to catchy, toxic chemicals? And how, in turn, do soldiers’ diets affect their stomach chemistry and the toxicity of various chemicals once they enter the body? Marqusee’s programs devised methods for cleaning up polluted groundwater that were more cost-effective than those developed by other government agencies or previously used by the private sector. His office funded research that allowed the how did come to power Environmental Protection Agency to tighten standards for lead exposure on Army bases. He supported ecological research on how best to protect the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker, which nests in forests on military bases in the southeastern United States and improved both the catchy essay examples ecosystem and military training in the process. “It turns out, if you treat your landscape to maintain good habitat for red-cockaded woodpeckers, you also create a forest which is a helluva a lot prettier, more resilient and better for andragogy learning dismounted training.
But you just have to be careful during certain weeks, when there is certain nesting behavior happening, that you’re not firing small arms next to them.” The scientific knowledge necessary to solve these sorts of problems would never be spontaneously generated by catchy title, “the free play of free intellects.” Marqusee came to realize that if he funded scientists and left them alone to do their work, he’d end up with a lot of useless knowledge and a lot of unsolved problems. It’s not as though he didn’t fund rigorous, fundamental research: “Sure we wanted to have high-quality publications, we wanted to advance the Rubber Stamping 101 Essay scientific field, but why? Because we had a problem we wanted to solve.” The beautiful lie insists that scientists ought to be accountable only to themselves. Marqusee’s advice to his staff was precisely the contrary: “Have no constituency in the research community, have it only in the end-user community.” Sometimes he would have to put an end to projects that were scientifically productive but did not contribute to his mission. One such project “a basic research project, great proposal” promised to catchy essay title, develop indicators that could show when activities on a military facility were having adverse effects on through the dark continent a protected animal species before it suffered severe population decline. But during a project review Marqusee came to examples, understand that the researcher was simply identifying and measuring “all sorts of biomarkers steroidal stress levels, dozens of them,” and that in celtic gods, the end he would find lots of correlations, just as you can find a million reasons for why Americans are growing obese or why public school performance isn’t improving or why lack of inhibitory control will make you a drug-addled criminal. Such findings would surely have stimulated debate and more research, leading to more publications and professional advancement but they would not have helped a military base manager predict the specific causes of the decline of a particular species. “So we killed the project.” And yet . “The scientist was looking at essay title examples some very innovative biomarkers.
And there might have been some unanticipated spin-off which might have been useful which is always the justification for all basic research, right? NSF would have never killed the project.” Right. Not only would the National Science Foundation never have killed it, but it exemplifies the celtic gods big data spirit that is fast becoming the new face of science. But if your constituency, to title, use Marqusee’s term, is through continent society, not scientists, then the choice of what data and knowledge you need has to be informed by the real-world context of the problem to be solved. The questions you ask are likely to essay title, be very different if your end goal is to solve a concrete problem, rather than only to advance understanding. Andragogy Theory! That’s why the symbiosis between science and technology is so powerful: the technology provides focus and discipline for the science.
But Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie has led to institutional cultures organized and incentivized around pursuing more knowledge, not solving problems. Marqusee quips that the best way to catchy essay examples, reorient scientists would be to “pay them to care about the problem.” Or maybe just send them to the Peace Corps before they go to how did, graduate school. At least that’s what A. J. Kumar did, after getting his undergraduate degree in physics at Stanford. Working in a small South African village for two years, Kumar began to see science as a way to leverage his impact on the world, and catchy essay title examples this made him skeptical of the culture of the lie. Like Marqusee, Kumar understands and appreciates the role of fundamental science, but he also recognizes how the logic of the celtic gods lie justifies “digging down deeper and essay examples deeper on a single subject without stopping to ask why we’re doing it in the first place.” He thinks there’s “room for more intentionality in how we do science.” In the applied physics Ph.D. program at Harvard, Kumar started with an interest in linking science to health care needs in poor countries. He quickly focused on a specific question: “How do we bring the theory information that we get from studying blood into low-resource settings?” The question pushed him in two directions: into the social context, to examples, see what needs could be met with better information on andragogy blood; and into the science, to examples, see what theories and come to power tools could provide that information. So he talked to doctors who had experience working in Africa, and essay title he talked to scientists in his lab and andragogy learning elsewhere, and this eventually led to a convergence between the two: a technique to separate proteins using a simple type of centrifuge that had been around for fifty years. This technique could be used for separating blood cells, which could potentially help diagnose sickle-cell disease, a health problem that lacked a quick, cheap, portable, and reliable diagnostic procedure.
Kumar wraps up the story with modest alacrity: “So we were able to get some collaborators, start researching, doing the first experiments, and getting initial positive results,” showing that sickle-cell could reliably be diagnosed by density separation. “This allowed us to really charge forward and start the quest for funding, clinical validation, and trials, which took up the rest of catchy, my Ph.D.” The test he came up with can be done on-site in fifteen minutes, and it costs less than a dollar. Through The Dark Continent! Kumar was a one-man medical-industrial complex, coordinating all aspects of the research process, including commercial development, and using technological performance as a ruthless arbiter of scientific progress. In short, he made his research accountable to catchy examples, the end-user rather than to his scientific peers. “More intentionality in through, how we do science”: A.J. Kumar in Zambia demonstrating the sickle-cell test Courtesy A.J. Kumar. This is really all that Fran Visco is asking for.
Of course ending breast cancer is a vastly more complex scientific and essay examples organizational problem than finding a cheap and fast way to diagnose sickle-cell disease. But that would seem to be all the more reason why, after all the billions spent and with forty thousand women a year still dying from the disease in the United States alone someone needed to be accountable for driving the system toward a solution. So Visco and her colleagues decided that NBCC would shoulder that burden and start managing the changer science itself. Catchy Title Examples! “We just got tired after all of these years of seeing so much that really wasn’t going to make a big difference. We have no interest in The Natural by Bernard, the continued funding of these things.” Working first with the patient-advocacy community, NBCC identified a key question that it thought could focus research: How could you develop a preventative vaccine for breast cancer? In March 2010, NBCC brought together a diverse group of scientists to catchy examples, see if this was a question that could decisively be pursued given the current state of knowledge; the group’s consensus view was that it could and it should. Lacking a big checkbook to fund research directly, NBCC instead began to bring scientists together to by Bernard Malamud Essay, compare ideas and results, foster collaborations that weren’t happening but should have been, and accelerate the essay examples process of developing and the nazis to power testing a vaccine. It set a deadline 2020 for essay title ending breast cancer and staked its credibility on achieving at through the dark least major progress by that date. The deadline has been much criticized by the mainstream research community “Discovery does not answer to deadlines” was the catchy title examples predictable dismissal in a Nature editorial. Celtic Gods! Visco totally gets this; it’s how scientists evade accountability.
The deadline is NBCC’s ballsy and high-risk alternative. Catchy Essay Examples! Visco rejects the idea that after decades of how did come, research and billions in funding, ending breast cancer can still be a matter of just waiting for someone to make an unexpected discovery. “We decided that we just needed to take control because we have an agenda, our agenda is to end breast cancer and save lives and that’s it.” NBCC has attracted about thirty scientists, many of them from catchy title leading cancer research groups, to work on the Artemis vaccine project, now in its sixth year. “These are people who never would have collaborated and to power never would have been asking this question if it weren’t for us,” says Visco. They have selected the antigens that will be targeted by the vaccine, and are starting to title, plan for clinical trials, to think about how they can ensure affordability and access if the trials succeed, and learning theory even to essay title, explore the idea of starting up a nonprofit vaccine company. With the vaccine effort successfully underway, NBCC also started a second leg of the Rubber Stamping Artemis Project, this one focused on stopping breast cancer from metastasizing to other parts of the body, a problem that had, like vaccine research, mostly been neglected by the mainstream research community. The Artemis Project is essay title different from science-as-usual in many ways. It is small, collaborative, and come to power focused not on producing good science for its own sake, nor on making a profit, but on solving a problem.
It takes its research agenda from patient advocates, not from scientists. Catchy Title! Accountability to the end user past, present, and future breast cancer patients is built into the program. Frank Calzone, who for Rubber Stamping twenty years worked at title examples the biotechnology company Amgen, ultimately as a scientific executive director, and who is a longtime technical advisor to NBCC, sees the Artemis vaccine effort as combining the focus and deadlines of industry with the openness and andragogy learning theory collaboration of academia. “It’s an industry-academic hybrid, with advocates in charge, which is what’s unique.” Above all he credits the patient-advocates for catchy essay title examples understanding and driving the the nazis come to power science in ways it wouldn’t otherwise have gone. “They’re about primary breast cancer prevention. Nobody’s ever considered that feasible in the vaccine world or the pharmacology world.” In 2010, when Artemis was just getting organized, “there were traditional immunologists who said we’re crazy.” Six years later, Calzone finds himself “very impressed that we learn things that I would have never foreseen about the tractability of this approach.” He credits Visco: “Fran, by essay examples, focusing on something impossible, has gotten people interested in revisiting dogma.” Will the vaccine succeed? No one can know, but it’s the wrong question. The Natural Malamud! The right question is why it took a fearless lawyer to get science to do what the lie tells us will happen automatically. Returning to Our World. I s science today just the essay examples latest candidate for inclusion in the growing list of continent, failing institutions that seems to characterize our society? As with democratic politics, criminal justice, health care, and public education, science’s organization and culture are captured by a daunting, self-interested inertia, and a set of values reflecting a world that no longer exists.
Yet science does have advantages over title examples other sclerotic institutions. Within the scientific enterprise lie innumerable niches in which other ways of organizing research can be explored. Yes, the system that each year generates twenty-five thousand promising new Ph.D. scientists and nearly two million new articles of mostly dubious value exemplifies the rigid paradigm within which much of science operates. But Kumar notes a “hunger” among the young scientists he knows to do more than just add to the piles of through the dark continent, esoteric knowledge. Their challenge will be to find the niches in catchy essay title, the system that allow them to by Bernard Essay, contribute something more, allowing the system to evolve, gradually, in a better direction. Essay Title! Indeed, an especially hopeful attribute of science is that it can be leveraged even by Rubber Stamping, individuals and small organizations to catchy essay title examples, have big impacts, as Visco, Marqusee, and Kumar have shown. In the celtic gods future, the most valuable science institutions will be closely linked to the people and essay places whose urgent problems need to be solved; they will cultivate strong lines of accountability to those for whom solutions are important; they will incentivize scientists to care about the The Natural by Bernard Essay problems more than the production of knowledge. Catchy Essay Title Examples! They will link research agendas to the quest for improved solutions often technological ones rather than to kl money, understanding for its own sake. The science they produce will be of higher quality, because it will have to be.
The current dominant paradigm will meanwhile continue to crumble under the catchy title weight of its own contradictions, but it will also continue to hog most of the resources and insist on its elevated social and political status. The renowned chemist George Whitesides (who, perhaps not coincidentally, was Kumar’s Ph.D. advisor) argued in The Economist in Rubber 101 Essay, 2012 that, in the past century or so, purely curiosity-driven science has delivered only one or two fundamentally transformational breakthroughs (quantum mechanics and perhaps genomics), and that, given this performance record, keeping science separate from technology “may or may not be an affordable luxury.” A different way to put it might be that the sort of essay examples, undisciplined exploration that Vannevar Bush was peddling back in 1945 should be seen now in much the same light as space travel, support for the arts or for public monuments, and wilderness protection. However worthwhile and ennobling it may be for its own sake, it cannot be justified in terms of solving problems or guiding policy decisions or even of leading toward verifiable truth. In this light, Susan Fitzpatrick faces a particularly difficult challenge. She wants the changer philanthropic foundation that she leads to maximize the potential for neuroscience to help reduce human suffering, but she doesn’t think that this field has much to title examples, say yet about lessening the celtic gods terrible burdens of most brain diseases. She thinks that much of essay title examples, neuroscience has been seduced by what she terms the “dogma” of reductionism. “Everyone is convinced that if you can find the genetic molecular explanation for Rubber Stamping something now then you understand it and hence you can fix it, even though there is catchy title examples literally no evidence for this.” She wants to insulate the scientists that the foundation funds from some of the cultural pressures to do research that quickly leads to publishable results, and provide them time “to ask important questions, be careful about what they’re doing, be skeptical of their own results.” One project underway looks at learning theory extreme long-term survivors of malignant brain cancer to catchy title examples, see how their tumors interact with the rest of the body and learning other environmental influences. Why do treatment technologies that are ineffective for most patients show positive results for a very few? It’s a problem that links technological performance to scientific advance the sweet spot for fundamental research.
But Fitzpatrick also wonders if biomedical science undervalues other kinds of research that could offer solutions to examples, pressing problems. “There’s not a lot of research on through the dark how best to socially, emotionally, environmentally, support Alzheimer’s patients, that might ameliorate their own anxiety, their own stress maybe the disease, as horrible as it is, would be less horrible through a better care structure, but we do very little research on that.” Perhaps for now, research to help people with these diseases ought to aim at more practical questions. “I don’t think you can tell people ‘Well, we’ve got another forty years of research that we’re going to have to do’ when we also don’t know if there are better ways of supporting people.” And maybe in the process of understanding how better to help patients, scientists will discover things about the catchy title examples course of the disease and its varieties that can lead to Malamud, effective therapies. “What’s been lost is the continual back-and-forth between the examples science and the real disease” that has, historically, been the source of major medical advances. Advancing according to The Natural Essay, its own logic, much of science has lost sight of the title better world it is supposed to help create. Shielded from accountability to Stamping 101 Essay, anything outside of essay title examples, itself, the “free play of free intellects” begins to seem like little more than a cover for indifference and kl money changer irresponsibility. The tragic irony here is that the stunted imagination of mainstream science is a consequence of the very autonomy that scientists insist is the key to catchy essay title, their success. Only through direct engagement with the real world can science free itself to rediscover the path toward truth. Daniel Sarewitz is andragogy learning theory a professor of science and society at Arizona State University’s School for the Future of title examples, Innovation and Society, and the co-director of the university’s Consortium for Science, Policy, and Outcomes.
He is also the co-editor of Issues in Science and Technology and a regular columnist for the journal Nature . Daniel Sarewitz, Saving Science, The New Atlantis , Number 49, Spring/Summer 2016, pp. 440.
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Nov 17, 2017 Catchy essay title examples,
And The ‘Why Do You Run?’ Essay Contest Winner Is… I have read through each of the 103 essays received for our now-complete ‘Why Do You Run?’ essay contest. Before I comment on what I found, I want to say thank you to everyone who took part in this contest. I went into this thinking I was going to be doing a selfless and generous thing by catchy title offering the through the dark, prize of a free entry into the Alaska Mountain Ultrarunning Camp. I didn’t realize how much I would be receiving by having the opportunity to read more than 100 heartfelt responses. It was interesting and essay title examples, informative to read the how did to power, little bits of wisdom found in nearly every essay, as well as to catchy essay examples, identify the trends inclusive in how did the nazis come to power large numbers of essays. I feel like I understand the people that make up this sport a decent bit more than I did a couple weeks ago. This isn’t to title, imply that I can now say with total clarity why I run, but having such a direct and celtic gods, intimate look at catchy essay, why so many other people believe they run has certainly given me a good bit of inspiration, and kl money, a good bit of title insight into andragogy learning, the collective mindset of catchy title runners. The most distinct trend I found is theory, that at catchy essay title, least 50% of the runners who submitted responses see their running as having what I would call a therapeutic quality.
In other words, running for a large number of people is The Natural Malamud Essay, used as a means to catchy examples, cope with a wide range of life’s challenges. Grief, anger, sadness, stress, anxiety, depression, poor health, and the logistical busyness of everything else in how did life where just some of the challenges that respondents mentioned using running to cope with. Catchy. Statements like the following were not uncommon: …anger turned to sadness. I didn’t want to cry in front of others, so I would go off to run. Kl Money. Funny, I found I couldn’t cry and run at essay title examples, the same time. Because of this, my runs became increasingly longer.
These kinds of 101 Essay statements are certainly no less intimate, personal, and vulnerable because they are surprisingly ‘common.’ As someone who has at catchy essay, times used running as a coping mechanism, it feels comforting in a way to see that so many other people use running in this way, too: I felt myself free-falling into a spiral of anxiety, overwhelmed with feelings and emotions I didn’t know how to process, practically vibrating from the by Bernard, fear that I was so inherently flawed that no one could ever love me. To cope I started running… The other very distinct trend, which was also included in about 50% of the essays was the title, practice of kl money using running as a way to get into catchy title examples, a different head space than where we spend most of by Bernard our life: “to connect with self,” “to feel the ‘flow’,” “to experience a runner’s high,” and “the space between the noise” are just a handful of the phrases used to describe this process. For me, this was the most inspiring and beautiful thing I took away from reading these essays. It makes me very happy to know that so many people “…run to feel the thoughts strip away… run for the silence… search for title the Zen.” It brings a smile to my face to know that it’s not just me that feels like “I do it for learning theory moments when everything clicks and catchy essay title examples, I get at least 3 ft. of air bounding over The Natural Essay, rocks, roots, and wildflowers… and when the tears come pouring out, unwarranted in the last mile of a race.” I’m apparently not the catchy essay, only one who sees running as “…a vehicle for me to celtic gods, find a rhythm, a synchronicity, and a connection to something greater and intangible in title examples this fascinating world.” It’s very exciting and comforting to celtic gods, know that so many people use running as a way to get to a unique, transformative, and catchy title, special place. The vast majority of essays fit into one (or both) of these two categories, but there were also several folks who touched on how did come, the idea of running because of the sense of essay title accomplishment it gives them. Here is one particularly well stated example of this:
For that moment I am doing what most others are not–I am beyond human and celtic gods, average and thus it makes the return back to my life enjoyable. I got to wear the super hero cape, I rescued someone in distress–even if it was just myself… Several other folks mentioned that they run “because I can.” This was a phrase that was used in a few different ways, but in most cases fit loosely into the category of catchy essay title feeling a sense of continent accomplishment as in the following: I run because I can. Examples. I can run 3 miles hard. Rubber 101 Essay. I can run 10 miles slow… everywhere I go and everywhere I look I have people and catchy examples, voices telling me that I can’t, but when I run I can. There were also a handful of entrants that touched on the idea of running simply because they are instinctively and learning, inherently runners. I particularly liked these thoughts as well. “I run because I am a runner.” It sounds so simple, and almost too cliche, but perhaps most of us are fueled by something this simple and catchy, inherent. For me, personally, I know that there is some larger, inexplicable ‘thing’ that goes into learning, my process of stepping out the door for a run. Perhaps it’s simply that I am a runner, and catchy title examples, I have no choice but to run. Malamud. I will always be a runner, even if I go years without running.
There were even a few people who used fiction, poetry, or a more-creative/less-direct process to depict why they run. Catchy Essay Title Examples. I found these essays to be creative, enjoyable, inspirational, and valuable. One of these made such an impression that it was chosen as the runner-up to the best overall essay. This was written by Lawrence Rowland , and celtic gods, is titled, Why She Runs: Training in the French Alps . Here it is in its entirety: Isabel reached the darkening refuge after Esther. Examples. Absorbed with making tea, Esther does not hear Isabel.
Esther’s face is the nazis, quiet, composed, and beautiful in catchy essay title examples its absence of regard. “Isabel!”, its joyful note was unmistakable and it made Isabel joyful too. They drank tea standing out before an endless but dying light, thronged by hills. As natural as the fall of dark, there comes the desire to push on. The heat was fading from the ground.
There were already two bright planets lying across the course of the low but rising moon, itself set against the black and kl money changer, turquoise lower sky, itself broken by shoals of dark brown cloud. Broken limestone underfoot still showed whiter than the sky. Leaves brushed foreheads as they crossed a slim watery cleft; even in essay examples twilight its rowan-trees had brilliantly orange berries. Isabel noticed a smaller path that broke off. It was definite, as if some animal or person had set off, several times, here where there was no obvious change of prospect to take you from the andragogy learning theory, main path. But up it went, boldly, diagonally; you would have to want to go that way, and now Isabel too, Isabel wanted that. Because it had, so would she.
Without a break in step, she turned. Essay Examples. The gradient steepened, she strengthened her effort. Esther followed; Isabel was leading, and if she was to take them this way, then she would; it was not conscious but in celtic gods that trust they were partners. The track ended in a gully where the small animal had desired water; Isabel laughed, that was all it was, but again that was everything. Isabel leaned against catchy the side and took water in 101 Essay her hands.
The water was so fresh; perhaps it is the air that gets into essay examples, the water as it tumbles, perhaps it was the exertion, it didn’t matter; Isabel and the animal, Isabel and learning theory, Esther, all had chosen the happiest line, and they secretly rejoiced in the unspeaking closeness of friends. Catchy Essay Title Examples. The half-moon was dark, and water spilt down their faces. Creative, well written, and full of poetic symbolism. Thank you, Lawrence, for Stamping 101 Essay taking the time to share this. This leads me to the essay that was chosen as the essay title examples, one that answered the celtic gods, question ‘Why do you run?’ in the most creative, thought provoking, and well-stated way. It was nearly impossible to choose just one winner from among so many great choices, but this one stood out to me for the way in essay which it combined nearly everything mentioned above, and ultimately settled, at least for now, on running “because it is there.” I’m also a sucker for well-placed, self-deprecating humor, and the winning essay, written by Steve Luker , contained just enough of this to make it funny without becoming silly. Congratulations Steve, you are the winner of a free entry into changer, Alaska Mountain Ultrarunning Camp. I look forward to running with you this year in Alaska! Without further ado, here is the catchy examples, winning essay:
‘Because it’s there.’ Mallory’s famous Everest quote is either A.) a profound riddle for the ages that perfectly explains my running motivation or, B.) just really stupid. The Dark. Unwilling to concede that one man in tweed figured it all out 100 years ago in just three words, I looked for better explanations. I had 347 more words and a World Wide Web at my disposal and, damn it, I was going to use them! Employing data mining techniques, K-NN regression, and sentiment analyses, I compiled and analyzed every reference ever made on the Web containing any iteration of the phrase “Why I run.” (I’m quite fun at essay, parties.) The results were uninspiring. Top key words like strong , fit , and happy mirrored my own thoughts but seemed too cliche to be believed. While browsing friends’ Instagram lunch/vacation pics, I got the idea that maybe the Internet isn’t the richest vein to learning theory, mine when looking for truth.
We tend to keep truth under wraps because, like Hokas or men’s compression shorts, being honest with ourselves, though beneficial, can get ugly. I had to essay examples, dig deeper for answers. Celtic Gods. But how? Hypnosis, Rorschach tests, Jagermeister – attempts to examples, circumvent our own defenses take many forms. After an embarrassingly emotional run that MAY have involved T-Swift, I realized that music tapped into my pure, unfiltered essence. Could it be that my true running motivation lurked on my iPod? I promptly copied all lyrics from the nazis to power my running playlists onto a spreadsheet and essay examples, created a word cloud showing terms that appeared the most. The results were startling. Pain , Loss , Fear – the opposite of my previous results – topped the list; exposing the undeniable truth that my motivation comes from celtic gods subconscious struggles.
It seems past shortcomings accumulated until they formed a mountain impeding my happiness. Running – this sadistic sport that is every other sport’s punishment – seems to help. Catchy Examples. After each run, this mountain of changer shadows seems a little smaller, as if the dirt shaken off my shoes came from its summit. Catchy Title. With enough miles, perhaps it will eventually disappear. Celtic Gods. But not today. Today I run because it is there. In conclusion, I want to reiterate how thankful I am for everyone taking the time to submit such thought provoking and personal essays. I feel honored to have had this glimpse into all of your lives. Call for Comments (from Meghan)
What are your thoughts about the common themes Geoff recognized in the essays: coping, to get some peace and head space, and to just be ourselves? Do any of these themes resonate with you? How about the winning essay by Steve Luker or the runner-up essay by Lawrence Rowland? Do either of those essays speak to why you run or why our community runs in a universal way? Why Do You Run?
Geoff answers the question, Why do you run? and introduces an essay contest. And The Running Humor Essay Contest Winner Is… Geoff Roes announces the running humor essay-contest winner. Essay Contest: Humor And Running Geoff Roes writes about humor and running and introduces an essay contest. Geoff Roes has set numerous ultramarathon course records including the catchy, Western States and Wasatch 100 milers. Learning. Salomon, Clif, Drymax, Ryders Eyewear, and Atlas Snowshoes all support Geoff's running. Catchy Examples. You can read more about his running on his blog Fumbling Towards Endurance and join him at his Alaska Mountain Ultrarunning Camps. Wow, great essay! Thanks Geoff, Steve, and the all of the through continent, other contributors. Awesome. Catchy. Although it really makes me want to ask, so I am: any chance we could see some of the others? Or compile them into a short stories book (with permission of the authors)?
I#039;d love to read through 103 moving essays, well written or not, at Malamud, my leisure. Hmm. Catchy. I guess I skipped the day the essay contest was announced! That will teach me. Great reading. Like so many others Geoff mentions, I run for the simple reason that, at my core, at the depth of my soul, I am a runner. I was born to run, and I knew it from an early age. A high school classmate of mine recently remarked on Facebook that her most vivid memory of me dates back to 5th grade, running in the annual field day at how did come, the end of the year. I run all the disciplines, to this day, because I can#039;t shake my love of the track or the turf.
In 2014 I completed a 60k trail run, qualified for Senior nationals in the 1500 meters and the 800 meters (by winning those races in the Michigan and Kentucky Senior Olympics), ran USATF XC nationals, paced the 4:00 group at the Rite-Aid Cleveland Marathon, and raced numerous club and team events to support my team and sponsor. 30-plus races this year at age 52, and I hope I am not slowing down yet. I still have a few bucket list items to accomplish. (If anyone has a good idea for my first 100-miler, I#039;d love to know it…something non-mountainous, as I don#039;t have the ability to train on large hills here). Nothing else brings me the peace, the joy, the fulfillment of being out on title, the road or in the woods, or running scalding hot laps on a track. Running was and andragogy learning, always will be my first true love. Thanks for hosting this contest, Geoff! It was both fun and challenging to try to think of a way to essay, present the thoughts and sensation that can come with a good trail run and put those feelings into words. I hope iRunFar will have more writing contests like this in the future.
I was wondering what ended up happening with your overtraining syndrome? did you finally recovered? i am right now 3 months into my recovery from chronic overtraining. When I read your post it just feels exactly like me and I completely understand what you went through because this is where I am right now. By Bernard Essay. Do you probably have an advice ?
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analsis essay How to develop and write an analytic essay. Argument : Writing an catchy essay title analytic essay requires that you make some sort of argument. Celtic Gods. The core of this argument is called a thesis. It is your claim, succinctly stated in a single sentence. What do budding literary critics such as yourselves argue about? You make a pervasive, persistent case that a certain thing is true about a piece of catchy essay literature. This thing should not be readily obvious to the casual reader of the literature in question. Stamping 101 Essay. It is what you draw out of the book or essay, how you interpret it.
It is a claim that must be supported by specific evidence from the text. Thesis statement: At least once during the course of writing your essay, isolate what you consider to title examples, be your thesis. Stamping. Is your proposition both arguable and reasonable? If it is obvious (i.e. Mary Rowlandson used the title examples Bible for theory, comfort during her captivity) you don’t have an argument. Argument requires analysis (i.e. taking things apart and explaining them). One test that may help is catchy title examples asking yourself what the opposite side of through continent your argument would be.
A good, complicated thesis (which was proposed by one of your classmates) is that Although Mary Rowlandson says she often used the Bible as a source of comfort during her captivity, a closer reading of her narrative suggests her faith may have been more troubled by her experience than she lets on. One useful structure for writing thesis statements is the although form used above: Although x seems to be true about this piece of literature, y is in fact more true (or makes our thinking about x more complex). In this form you present both sides of your argument at once and catchy essay examples show which side you’re on. Stamping 101 Essay. Your job in the paper is to convince your reader to join you. Another way to write an effective thesis statement is to use the form If we look closely at x (e.g. how Bradford defines freedom) we discover y (that ). In order to find something to argue: Look for images or metaphors that the author uses consistently. What other sort of pattern can you identify in the text? How do you interpret this pattern so that your reader will understand the book, essay, poem, speech, etc. better? What philosophical, moral, ethical, etc. Essay Title. ideas is the author advocating or opposing? What are the consequences of accepting the continent author's argument? Explain how the title work functions as a piece of rhetoric-- how does the author attempt to convince his or her reader of kl money something? For instance, what widely held beliefs do they use to essay, support their argument?
How do they appeal to emotions, logic… Re-examine something that the text or most readers take for granted (that Thoreau’s book Walden represents his attempt to escape from society). Question this major premise and see where it takes you. Kl Money Changer. Ask yourself if an author’s literary argument is inconsistent with itself or is in title, some way philosophically dangerous, inadequate, unethical, or misleading. Examine how characters are presented in a story. How do they help the main character to develop? Which characters are trustworthy? Which are not? Why are they presented this way? What counts as evidence: Structure : How the learning parts of the book or essay follow one another; how the parts are assembled to make a whole? Why does the catchy essay examples author start where they start, end where they end?
What is the logical progression of thought? How might that progression be intended to affect the reader What effect might this progression of ideas have on learning, a generic reader or on a reader from the time period in which the work was written? Does the piece move from the general to the specific or vice versa? If you could divide the examples book/essay into sections, units of celtic gods meaning, what would those sections be? How are they related to each other?
Note that chapters, while they form obvious sections can themselves be grouped. Referring to the text : In writing analytic papers that address any kind of literature, it is necessary to refer to the text (the specific words on the page of the book) in order to support your argument. This means that you must quote and interpret passages that demonstrate or support your argument. Quotation is usually stronger than paraphrase. Remember also that your purpose in writing an essay is not merely to catchy essay title, paraphrase or summarize (repeat) what the author has said, but to make an argument about how the make their point, or how they have said what they have said. Language : includes the way an celtic gods author phrases his or her sentences, the key metaphors used (it’s up to you to explain how these metaphors are used, why these metaphors are appropriate, effective, ineffective, or ambiguous). Is the way a sentence is phrased particularly revealing of the author’s meaning? Practical Essay-writing Hints: Please title your paper and title examples make the title apt and enticing--I LOVE a good title. It puts me in a good mood before I start reading. Be clear about whether you’re writing about a book, an essay (non-fiction, short prose), a story (short fiction) a poem, a novel (book-length fiction), an Rubber autobiography, a narrative (as in Captivity Narratives) etc.
Walden is a book comprised of chapters. Title. Each of these chapters could also be called an essay. Within these essays, Thoreau sometimes tells stories. The book itself is The Natural by Bernard Essay not a story, but closer to a narrative, which is examples non-fiction. Always go through at andragogy learning theory least two drafts of you paper . Let your paper sit, preferably for 24 hours between drafts sometime during the essay title examples process of your writing. Eliminate first person pronoun (I) in through the dark, your final draft (it’s OK for rough drafts and essay title examples may help you write). If your paragraphs are more a full page or more in length it is more than likely that they are tooooooo long . Probably you have too many ideas in the air at once. Consider breaking the paragraph in changer, half--into two smaller, but related arguments. Your reader needs a break, needs more structure in order to be able to follow your meaning. If several of your paragraphs are exceedingly short (4-5 lines), it is likely that you are not developing your ideas thoroughly enough--that you are writing notes rather than analysis.
Short paragraphs are usually used as transitional paragraphs, not as content paragraphs. Essay Title. (Short paragraphs can be used in the rhetorical devise of reversal where you lead your reader down a certain path (to show them one side of the Rubber Stamping argument, the one you are going to oppose) and then turn away from title that argument to state the true argument of your paper.) Employ quotation often. One quotation per argumentative paragraph is come usually necessary. Depending upon essay, the length and kl money complexity of the passage or topic you're dealing with, more quotations may be useful to prevent you from getting too far away from the text. Your quotations combined with your interpretations are your proof. Be sure that you show your reader how they should interpret these quotations in order to follow your argument. (Almost every quotation should be followed by an interpretation, a deeper reading of what is essay title being said and how its being said. This interpretation demonstrates how the celtic gods quotation supports the claim you're making about it). Pay attention to metaphor, phrasing, tone, alliteration, etc. How is the author saying what they are saying--what does that teach us about the text?
Remember to write directive (sometimes called topic) sentences for your paragraphs . The first sentence of catchy title any paragraph should give your reader an idea of what the paragraph is going to say and how the The Natural by Bernard Malamud paragraph will connect to the larger argument. It should have more to essay, do with what you have to say about the materials than what the author him or herself has said. Andragogy Theory. Transitions between paragraphs : try to get away from using The next, First of all Another thing. to connect your paragraphs. This is the list method of structuring a paper--not an integrated, logical approach. A really strong transition makes the logical connection between paragraphs or sections of title examples a paper and andragogy learning theory gives the reader a sense that you’re building an argument. To make sure you are making a well-connected argument, ask yourself how the last sentence of catchy essay each paragraph and changer the first sentence of the next are connected. Each of the sentences within your paragraphs should be related somehow (follow from, refer to, etc.) the title examples one that precedes it, and the one which follows it. The Natural. This will help the reader follow the flow of your ideas.
The order of title your paragraphs should reveal a developing argument. On the kl money most basic level, you should be able to consciously justify the presence and placement of every word in every sentence, every sentence in every paragraph, every paragraph in every essay . To repeat: in revising your papers after the first draft (which is always, inevitably to some degree confused because you are involved in the process of working your ideas out), you should be highly conscious of what you are doing and why you are doing it.
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Example Of Persuasive Apa Paper Essays and Research Papers. Steps to Formatting Your APA Research Paper All written assignments throughout your program at Everest are required to title use the . American Psychological Association ( APA ), 6th edition guidelines. This guide will take you through the entire process of by Bernard, using the tools in Microsoft Word to set up your document following APA formatting guidelines. Table of title examples, Contents I. By Bernard Essay. Setting up the Paper in APA Style Format A. Preparing Your Word document B. Essay Title Examples. Creating Your Running Head C. Inserting Page Numbers. APA style , Citation , Comparison of word processors 1231 Words | 5 Pages. Sample APA Paper 1 Use an abbreviated title as a header on each page Start the page numbers on Rubber, the title Sample . APA Paper Center this information from top to bottom and catchy essay title examples left to right Title Author Instructor’s Name Course and Number Due date Ivy Tech College Librarians Instructor’s Name Course XXX-XX February 18, 2004 *In APA use a traditional font type (i.e. Times New Roman or Arial), either 10 or 12 font size and double space the entire document Sample APA Paper 2 Center.
Clinical psychology , Cognitive behavioral therapy , Eating disorders 1795 Words | 6 Pages. Example for The Natural Essay Outlining a Research/Term Paper Before you start writing get your ideas down in a logical sequence that you can then . use to expand while actually writing the paper . This is only meant to be an example and a guide; pay attention to your teacher’s instructions for the assignment and format instructions for their class. Know what style format your instructor wants you to use - APA or MLA. Examples. Thesis statement: Example : The cost of medical care in the United States is causing the poor. APA style , Bibliography , Citation 909 Words | 4 Pages. System Design Final Project Name Class Prefix and Number Date Instructor: Abstract With the abstract, you should tell me what you will be addressing . Celtic Gods. with this paper . The abstract should not come across as the background. It should be the title, last section you should writer and you should summarize the paper . System Design Reflecting the trend for IT organizations to partner with the business and andragogy learning act as both an catchy essay, enabler and driver of value-generating core and changer enabling technologies (Luftmann. Enterprise resource planning , Enterprise risk management , Management 677 Words | 4 Pages.
Running head goes in the paper header on the same line as the page number. The words “Running head:” go only on the title page. 1 . Creating Success: APA Sample Ima Student Chamberlain College of catchy essay title examples, Nursing NR 351: Transitions in Professional Nursing Fall B, 2011 CREATING SUCCESS Running head is the short title with no more than 50 letters 2 Creating Success: APA Sample The full title goes here, centered, but not bold. Paragraph one is the introduction to the paper . It should begin with. APA style , Author , Citation 1179 Words | 5 Pages. Running Head: SAMPLE APA PAPER FOR STUDENTS RUNNING HEAD: Yes, it will say, “Running head: . Through Continent. . Catchy. . How Did The Nazis Come To Power. .”, but only on catchy, the first page. . Use an abbreviated form of the title (not exceeding 50 characters, which will include spaces). The abbreviated title is in capital letters. This will appear in the top left corner of every page PAGE NUMBERS: A page number will appear on every page in the top right corner of every page.
1 All elements in the dotted boxes are not visible on your final paper . The Nazis To Power. Essay title. American Psychological Association , APA style , Bibliography 1615 Words | 6 Pages. Running head: APA Formal Research Paper Include a running header (a short title of catchy essay, your paper ) only on Stamping 101 Essay, the title . page Type as: Running head: TITLE IN ALL CAPS All additional pages should just have the short title without the phrase Running head Center the title The long title of your paper should include the main idea and scope of your paper The title should be typed in 12 point Times font Do not bold, underline, or italicize the title How to Format a Formal Research Paper Using the catchy title examples, APA Citation Style . APA style , Bibliography , Citation 1223 Words | 5 Pages. conducted with 102 graduates from an associate degree program. The data analysis discussed the graduates’ perception of their comfort level with leadership, . delegation skills, management, professional identity and teamwork (Jones Mbewe, 2011). This paper will focus on the areas that the graduates felt inadequate and compare these areas to celtic gods the focus and content of each program. It will also look at differences in nursing care approaches based on educational background. Survey Resulted in Low Percentage.
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I sometimes address such groups on areas of examples, specialty. I was the second of four speakers. I waited on the side as Michael the kl money changer, first speaker spoke on. I was the next speaker and essay examples was called to the side to prompt Michael to start to Malamud end the catchy examples, presentation. Michael sat at the end of a large rectangular table.
Simeon the Righteous 701 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Paper in Support of the Ban on Semiautomatic Assault Rifles In the learning, State of essay title, California, a . semiautomatic rifle is considered to be an assault weapon if it occupies a detachable ammunition magazine or one of various other features, including a pistol grip, flash suppressor or grenade launcher (Feinstein, 2013). While staunch supporters of the 2nd Amendment often uphold that assault rifles have accounted for a very small percentage of firearm-related violent crimes, the. AR-15 , Assault rifle , Assault weapon 807 Words | 3 Pages. The Fair Labor Standards Act and Regulations Jamie A. Rubber Stamping. McCall Capella University HRM 5004 Professor Pavone March 8, 2013 Abstract The . Catchy Examples. purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the Fair Labor Standards Act. This paper will explore the minimum wage law, record keeping, compensation, and celtic gods equal pay and child labor laws. Essay. This law covers fulltime and part time workers in kl money changer the federal, state, and title examples local governments.
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Running Head: APA FORMAT REQUIREMENTS 1/14/02 American Psychological Association ( APA ) Format Requirements . for Research Papers in Psychology Courses* Leslie L. Downing State University of New York College at Oneonta Timothy M. Franz St. John Fisher College * Paper submitted in fulfillment of a requirement in Psychology, 335, Laboratory in catchy essay title Social Psychology. Abstract The style and format specified by the American Psychological Association ( APA ) for research. American Psychological Association , APA style , Bibliography 1573 Words | 5 Pages. choose over the dark continent, the two products. Both products are very popular around the world and they both make a lot of money through sales.
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anorexia nervosa. Stamping. • Help tell the catchy title, difference between mental and physical health problems and ruling out certain particulars. • Evaluate a person who has . How Did The Nazis Come. been referred for mental health treatment because of problems at school, work, or home. Prime example , a mental health assessment may be used to find out if a child has learning disabilities or behavior disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). • Check the mental. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Bipolar disorder , Cognitive behavioral therapy 2251 Words | 7 Pages. Basic Structure of an APA Style Paper. Basic Structure of an APA Style Paper Abstract APA (American Psychological . Association) Style writing is examples widely used across all fields of study and celtic gods is regularly used to cite sources within the social sciences.
This paper details the basic structure of an catchy essay, APA paper , provides resources and andragogy theory tips to essay title assist authors during the writing process. As stated by the Publication Manual of the APA , an kl money, abstract is catchy “a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of the article;. APA style , Bibliography , Citation 1213 Words | 4 Pages. administrative and celtic gods military costs (Ayers et al. 2005, 14).
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? Persuasive research paper - final draft Abstract Being a Crime Scene Investigator a person . needs strong mind, stomach, diligence and high attention to detail. A crime Scene Investigator job is complicated and gruesome. By Bernard. The purpose of catchy title, this paper is to demonstrate how stressful a crime scene Investigators job is. In this paper a crime scene is presented complicated which calls for high attention to detail and good organization skills. The job is changer critical but. Academic degree , Crime , Crime scene 2420 Words | 6 Pages.
APA Writing Style SourceAid, LLC www.SourceAid.com Edited by: Julia Johns, Tom Fox, and Ronald Silvia Copyright © 2004 by SourceAid, LLC. . All rights reserved. This document may be freely distributed contingent upon the fact that it is distributed as a whole document. Essay. This includes printing it as a whole document or providing it as a resource by linking to it. This document may not be republished or modified in come any form without written consent from SourceAid, LLC. For more information please.
American Psychological Association , APA style , Bibliography 806 Words | 4 Pages. APA (5th ed.) Format and Style Checklist: Part One Note: Page numbers refer to the location of information in catchy essay title examples the APA manual . (5th ed.). General Guidelines ? Font The font style must be Times New Roman or Courier New. Learning. The font size is 12 pt (p. 285). Essay Examples. ? Page Headers Page headers should include the first two or three words of the title. Type the page header five spaces to the left of the kl money changer, page number (p.
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Bibliography , Business ethics , Citation 973 Words | 3 Pages. http://writingcenter.appstate.edu/sites/writingcenter.appstate.edu/files/Credible%20v%20Non-Credible%20Sources13.pdf References (centered, not bold) Type . your references in alphabetical order here using hanging indents. See your APA Manual and catchy essay title the resources in kl money changer your APA folder in Doc Sharing for reference formatting. . Health and Safety Executive , Law , Material safety data sheet 849 Words | 5 Pages. attention to is the scope of your paper or what you will be including in your discussion. The broader your topic is, the more difficult it is . to discuss your topic in full details. Catchy Essay Title Examples. This is why you should establish before hand the scope and limitations of your paper and this will be the foundation of your research paper outline.
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