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Network Management System: Best Practices White Paper. View with Adobe Reader on changes, a variety of devices. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) network management model defines five functional areas of network management. Stressful Events Essay? This document covers all functional areas. The overall purpose of this document is to provide practical recommendations on each functional area to increase the overall effectiveness of current management tools and practices. It also provides design guidelines for cognitive in adolescence, future implementation of network management tools and radish germination, technologies. The ISO network management model's five functional areas are listed below. Fault Management—Detect, isolate, notify, and correct faults encountered in the network. Configuration Management—Configuration aspects of network devices such as configuration file management, inventory management, and software management. Performance Management—Monitor and measure various aspects of performance so that overall performance can be maintained at an acceptable level.

Security Management—Provide access to cognitive in adolescence network devices and corporate resources to authorized individuals. Accounting Management—Usage information of network resources. The following diagram shows a reference architecture that Cisco Systems believes should be the minimal solution for managing a data network. This architecture includes a Cisco CallManager server for those who plan to manage Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP): The diagram shows how you would integrate the CallManager server into Essay on Games Cause, the NMS topology. The network management architecture includes the changes following: Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) platform for vs deontology, fault management. Performance monitoring platform for long term performance management and cognitive changes, trending. CiscoWorks2000 server for configuration management, syslog collection, and hardware and software inventory management.

Some SNMP platforms can directly share data with the environmental policy CiscoWorks2000 server using Common Information Model/eXtensible Markup Language (CIM/XML) methods. CIM is a common data model of an implementation-neutral schema for describing overall management information in a network/enterprise environment. Cognitive In Adolescence? CIM is comprised of a specification and a schema. The specification defines the details for integration with other management models such as SNMP MIBs or Desktop Management Task Force Management Information Files (DMTF MIFs), while the schema provides the actual model descriptions. XML is a markup language used for representing structured data in textual form. A specific goal of XML was to keep most of the descriptive power of SGML whilst removing as much of the complexity as possible. XML is similar in teleology concept to HTML, but whereas HTML is used to convey graphical information about cognitive changes in adolescence, a document, XML is teleology vs deontology used to represent structured data in a document. Cisco's advanced services customers would also include Cisco's NATkit server for additional proactive monitoring and troubleshooting. The NATkit server would either have a remote disk mount (rmount) or file transfer protocol (FTP) access to the data residing on the CiscoWorks2000 server.

The Network Management Basics chapter of the Internetworking Technology Overview provides a more detailed overview regarding network management basics. The goal of fault management is to changes detect, log, notify users of, and (to the Video Games Cause, extent possible) automatically fix network problems to keep the network running effectively. Because faults can cause downtime or unacceptable network degradation, fault management is perhaps the most widely implemented of the ISO network management elements. A network management platform deployed in the enterprise manages an infrastructure that consists of multivendor network elements. The platform receives and cognitive changes, processes events from network elements in the network. Functionalism? Events from servers and other critical resources can also be forwarded to cognitive a management platform. Environmental Policy In Malaysia? The following commonly available functions are included in a standard management platform: Topology mapping of changes, network elements.

Performance data collector and grapher. Management data browser. Network management platforms can be viewed as the main console for network operations in detecting faults in the infrastructure. Games And Violence: Or Scapegoat?? The ability to detect problems quickly in any network is critical. Network operations personnel can rely on a graphical network map to display the operational states of critical network elements such as routers and cognitive in adolescence, switches. Network management platforms such HP OpenView, Computer Associates Unicenter, and radish germination, SUN Solstice can perform a discovery of network devices. Each network device is represented by a graphical element on cognitive changes, the management platform's console.

Different colors on the graphical elements represent the current operational status of network devices. Network devices can be configured to functionalism send notifications, called SNMP traps, to cognitive in adolescence network management platforms. Upon receiving the notifications, the radish germination graphical element representing the network device changes to a different color depending on the severity of the notification received. The notification, usually called an event, is placed in a log file. It is particularly important that the cognitive changes most current Cisco Management Information Base (MIB) files be loaded on the SNMP platform to ensure that the various alerts from Cisco devices are interpreted correctly. Cisco publishes the MIB files for managing various network devices.

The Cisco MIB files are located on the cisco.com website, and include the in malaysia following information: MIB files published in SNMPv1 format. MIB files published in SNMPv2 format. Supported SNMP traps on Cisco devices. OIDs for Cisco current SNMP MIB objects. A number of network management platforms are capable of managing multiple geographically distributed sites. This is accomplished by exchanging management data between management consoles at remote sites with a management station at the main site. The main advantage of a distributed architecture is that it reduces management traffic, thus, providing a more effective usage of bandwidth.

A distributed architecture also allows personnel to locally manage their networks from remote sites with systems. A recent enhancement to management platforms is the ability to remotely management network elements using a web interface. This enhancement eliminates the need for special client software on individual user stations to access a management platform. A typical enterprise is changes comprised of different network elements. However, each device normally requires vendor-specific element management systems in order to effectively manage the network elements. Therefore, duplicate management stations may be polling network elements for the same information. Teleology Vs Deontology? The data collected by different systems is changes stored in separate databases, creating administration overhead for users. This limitation has prompted networking and software vendors to adopt standards such as Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) to facilitate the exchange of management data between management platforms and element management systems. Influence? With vendors adopting standards in management system development, users can expect interoperability and in adolescence, cost savings in deploying and managing the infrastructure. CORBA specifies a system that provides interoperability between objects in a heterogeneous, distributed environment and in on family a manner that is transparent to cognitive the programmer.

Its design is based on the Object Management Group (OMG) object model. Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) and system log (syslog) servers are crucial components of a troubleshooting infrastructure in teleology network operations. The TFTP server is used primarily for storing configuration files and software images for network devices. Routers and switches are capable of sending system log messages to a syslog server. The messages facilitate the troubleshooting function when problems are encountered. Occasionally, Cisco support personnel need the syslog messages to perform root cause analysis.

The CiscoWorks2000 Resource Management Essentials (Essentials) distributed syslog collection function allows for the deployment of several UNIX or NT collection stations at remote sites to perform message collection and filtering. The filters can specify which syslog messages will be forwarded to the main Essentials server. A major benefit of implementing distributed collection is the reduction of cognitive in adolescence, messages forwarded to the main syslog servers. The purpose of Stressful Essay, fault management is to detect, isolate, notify, and correct faults encountered in the network. Network devices are capable of cognitive changes in adolescence, alerting management stations when a fault occurs on the systems. An effective fault management system consists of several subsystems. Fault detection is accomplished when the devices send SNMP trap messages, SNMP polling, remote monitoring (RMON) thresholds, and syslog messages. Teleology Vs Deontology? A management system alerts the changes in adolescence end user when a fault is reported and corrective actions can be taken. Traps should be enabled consistently on network devices. Additional traps are supported with new Cisco IOS software releases for routers and on Games Cause, or Scapegoat?, switches.

It is in adolescence important to check and update the configuration file to ensure the proper decoding of traps. A periodic review of how does influence communication, configured traps with the Cisco Assured Network Services (ANS) team will ensure effective fault detection in cognitive in adolescence the network. The following table lists the teleology CISCO-STACK-MIB traps that are supported by, and cognitive in adolescence, can be used to monitor fault conditions on, Cisco Catalyst local area network (LAN) switches. Environmental monitor (envmon) traps are defined in CISCO-ENVMON-MIB trap. The envmon trap sends Cisco enterprise-specific environmental monitor notifications when an environmental threshold is exceeded. When envmon is used, a specific environmental trap type can be enabled, or all trap types from the environmental monitor system can be accepted. If no option is specified, all environmental types are enabled.

It can be one or more of the following values: voltage—A ciscoEnvMonVoltageNotification is sent if the functionalism voltage measured at a given test point is outside the normal range for the test point (such as is at the warning, critical, or shutdown stage). shutdown—A ciscoEnvMonShutdownNotification is sent if the environmental monitor detects that a test point is reaching a critical state and is about to initiate a shutdown. supply—A ciscoEnvMonRedundantSupplyNotification is in adolescence sent if the redundant power supply (where extant) fails. fan—A ciscoEnvMonFanNotification is sent if any one of the functionalism fans in the fan array (where extant) fails. temperature—A ciscoEnvMonTemperatureNotification is sent if the temperature measured at a given test point is outside the normal range for the test point (such as is at changes the warning, critical, or shutdown stage). Fault detection and monitoring of network elements can be expanded from the policy device level to the protocol and interface levels. For a network environment, fault monitoring can include Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN), asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), fault indications on physical interfaces, and so forth. Cognitive Changes In Adolescence? Protocol-level fault management implementation is available using an element management system such as the CiscoWorks2000 Campus Manager. The TrafficDirector application in Campus Manager focuses on switch management utilizing mini-RMON support on Catalyst switches. With an increasing number of network elements and complexity of network issues, an Essay or Scapegoat?, event management system that is capable of correlating different network events (syslog, trap, log files) may be considered.

This architecture behind an event management system is comparable to a Manager of Managers (MOM) system. A well-designed event management system allows personnel in the network operations center (NOC) to be proactive and effective in detecting and changes in adolescence, diagnosing network issues. Essay On Video Games Cause,? Event prioritization and suppression allow network operation personnel to focus on cognitive changes in adolescence, critical network events, investigate several event management systems including the Cisco Info Center, and conduct a feasibility analysis to fully explore the capabilities of such systems. To obtain more information, go to Games and Violence: Cause, the Cisco Info Center. Proactive Fault Monitoring and Notification. RMON alarm and event are two groups defined in changes in adolescence the RMON specification.

Normally, a management station performs polling on influence communication, network devices to determine the cognitive status or value of in malaysia, certain variables. For example, a management station polls a router to find out the central processing unit (CPU) utilization and generate an event when the value hits reaches a configured threshold. Cognitive Changes In Adolescence? This method wastes network bandwidth and can also miss the actual threshold depending on the polling interval. With RMON alarm and policy, events, a network device is configured to monitor itself for rising and falling thresholds. At a predefined time interval, the network device will takes a sample of a variable and cognitive changes, compares it against the thresholds. An SNMP trap can be sent to Stressful Events Essay a management station if the actual value exceeds or falls below the configured thresholds. RMON alarm and event groups provide a proactive method of managing critical network devices. Cisco Systems recommends implementing RMON alarm and event on critical network devices. Monitored variables can include CPU utilization, buffer failures, input/output drops, or any variables of Integer types.

Starting with Cisco IOS Software Release 11.1(1), all router images support RMON alarm and event groups. For detailed information about RMON alarm and event implementation, refer to the RMON Alarm and Event Implementation section. RMON memory usage is constant across all switch platforms relating to changes statistics, histories, alarms, and events. RMON uses what is called a bucket to store histories and statistics on the RMON agent (which is the switch in this case). The bucket size is defined on the RMON probe (SwitchProbe device) or RMON application (TrafficDirector tool), then sent to the switch to how does personality communication be set. Approximately 450 K of code space is cognitive changes needed to support mini-RMON (for example, four RMON groups: statistics, history, alarms, and events).

The dynamic memory requirement for RMON varies because it depends on the runtime configuration. The following table defines the runtime RMON memory usage information for environmental policy, each mini-RMON group. *RMON uses what is called a bucket to store histories and statistics on the RMON agent (such as a switch). RMON Alarm and Event Implementation. By incorporating RMON as part of changes, a fault management solution, a user can proactively monitor the how does personality communication network before a potential problem occurs. For example, if the number of broadcast packets received increases significantly, it can cause an changes in adolescence, increase in CPU utilization. By implementing RMON alarm and event, a user can set up a threshold to policy in malaysia monitor the number of broadcast packets received and changes in adolescence, alert the SNMP platform by means of an SNMP trap if the configured threshold is reached.

RMON alarms and events eliminate the excessive polling normally performed by the SNMP platform for accomplishing the radish same goal. Two methods are available from which to cognitive changes in adolescence configure RMON alarm and event: Command-line interface (CLI) The following sample procedures show how to set a threshold to Essay Games and Violence: or Scapegoat? monitor the changes number of broadcast packets received on policy in malaysia, an interface. The same counter is cognitive changes used in Essay Games these procedures as is shown in the show interface command example at the end of this section. To implement RMON alarm and event using the cognitive CLI interface, perform the following steps: Find the policy in malaysia interface index associated with Ethernet 0 by walking the ifTable MIB. Obtain the OID associated with the CLI field to be monitored. For this example, the OID for 'broadcasts' is 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.12. The Cisco OIDs for specific MIB variables are available from the cisco.com website. Determine the following parameters for changes in adolescence, setting up thresholds and events.

rising and falling thresholds. sampling type (absolute or delta) action when threshold is reached. For the purpose of this example, a threshold is being set up to monitor the number of broadcast packets received on Essay on Games or Scapegoat?, Ethernet 0. A trap will be generated if the number of broadcast packets received is greater than 500 between 60-second samples. The threshold will be reactivated when the number of input broadcasts does not increase between samples taken. Note: For detailed about these command parameters, check the Cisco Connection Online (CCO) documentation for RMON alarm and cognitive changes, event commands for policy, your particular Cisco IOS version. Specify the trap sent (RMON event) when the changes threshold is reached using the following CLI commands (The Cisco IOS commands are displayed in how does influence communication bold): rmon event 1 trap gateway description High Broadcast on Ethernet 0 owner cisco.

rmon event 2 log description normal broadcast received on ethernet 0 owner cisco. Specify the thresholds and relevant parameters (RMON alarm) using the following CLI commands: rmon alarm 1 ifEntry.12.1 60 delta rising-threshold 500 1. falling-threshold 0 2 owner cisco. Use SNMP to changes poll these tables to verify that the eventTable entries were made on the device. Use SNMP to poll these tables to communication verify that the cognitive alarmTable entries were set. In order to implement RMON alarm and event with the SNMP SET operation, complete these steps: Specify the Video Games and Violence: or Scapegoat? trap sent (RMON event) when the threshold is reached using the following SNMP SET operations:

Specify the thresholds and relevant parameters (RMON alarm) using the following SNMP SET operations: Poll these tables to verify that the eventTable entries were made on the device. Poll these tables to verify that the alarmTable entries were set. This example is a result of the show interface command. gateway show interface ethernet 0. The goal of configuration management is to cognitive monitor network and system configuration information so that the effects on network operation of various versions of hardware and software elements can be tracked and managed. With an increasing number of network devices deployed, it is critical to be able to accurately identify the location of teleology, a network device.

This location information should provide a detailed description meaningful to those tasked with dispatching resources when a network problem occurs. Changes? To expedite a resolution if a network problem occurs, make certain to have available contact information of the person or department responsible for vs deontology, the devices. Contact information should include telephone number and the name of the person or department. Naming conventions for cognitive changes, network devices, starting from device name to individual interface, should be planned and implemented as part of the configuration standard. A well defined naming convention provides personnel with the ability to provide accurate information when troubleshooting network problems. The naming convention for devices can use geographical location, building name, floor, and so forth. For the interface naming convention, it can include the segment to Essay which a port is changes connected, name of connecting hub, and functionalism on family, so forth.

On serial interfaces, it should include actual bandwidth, local data link connection identifier (DLCI) number (if Frame Relay), destination, and in adolescence, the circuit ID or information provided by the carrier. When you add new configuration commands on existing network devices needs, you must verify the commands for integrity before actual implementation takes place. An improperly configured network device can have a disastrous effect on network connectivity and performance. Configuration command parameters must be checked to avoid mismatches or incompatibility issues. It is advisable to schedule a thorough review of configurations with Cisco engineers on a regular basis. A fully functional CiscoWorks2000 Essentials allows for backing up configuration files on routers and Cisco Catalyst switches automatically. The security feature of Essentials can be used to perform authentication on configuration changes. A change audit log is on family available to track changes and the user name of cognitive changes, individuals issuing changes. For configuration changes on multiple devices, two options are available: the web-based NetConfig in the current version of CiscoWorks2000 Essentials or the cwconfig script. Configuration files can be downloaded and radish, uploaded using CiscoWorks2000 Essentials utilizing the predefined or user-defined templates.

These functions can be accomplished with the configuration management tools in CiscoWorks2000 Essentials: Push configuration files from the Essentials configuration archive to a device or multiple devices. Pull the configuration from the device to the Essentials archive. Extract the latest configuration from the archive and cognitive in adolescence, write it to a file. Import configuration from a file and push the configuration to devices. Compare the last two configurations in germination the Essentials archive. Delete configurations older than a specified date or version from the archive. Copy the cognitive in adolescence startup configuration to the running configuration. The discovery function of how does personality communication, most network management platforms is intended to provide a dynamic listing of devices found in changes in adolescence the network.

Discovery engines such as those implemented in network management platforms should be utilized. An inventory database provides detailed configuration information on network devices. Common information includes models of hardware, installed modules, software images, microcode levels, and Stressful Events Essay, so on. All these pieces of information are crucial in completing tasks such as software and hardware maintenance. The up-to-date listing of network devices collected by the discovery process can be used as a master list to collect inventory information using SNMP or scripting. Changes In Adolescence? A device list may be imported from functionalism, CiscoWorks2000 Campus Manager into the inventory database of CiscoWorks2000 Essentials to obtain an up-to-date inventory of Cisco Catalyst switches. A successful upgrade of changes, Cisco IOS images on network devices requires a detailed analysis of the requirements such as memory, boot ROM, microcode level, and so on. Policy? The requirements are normally documented and available on Cisco's web site in the form of release notes and installation guides. The process of upgrading a network device running Cisco IOS includes downloading a correct image from CCO, backing up the cognitive changes current image, making sure all hardware requirements are met, and then loading the new image into the device.

The upgrade window to complete device maintenance is fairly limited for some organizations. Stressful Events Essay? In a large network environment with limited resources, it might be necessary to schedule and automate software upgrades after business hours. Changes In Adolescence? The procedure can be completed either using scripting language such as Expect or an germination, application written specifically to perform such a task. Changes to changes in adolescence software in network devices such as Cisco IOS images and microcode versions should be tracked to assist in the analysis phase when another software maintenance is required. With a modification history report readily available, the person performing the upgrade can minimize the risk of loading incompatible images or microcode into network devices. A service level agreement (SLA) is a written agreement between a service provider and their customers on the expected performance level of teleology, network services. The SLA consists of metrics agreed upon changes in adolescence, between the Stressful provider and its customers.

The values set for the metrics must be realistic, meaningful, and measurable for both parties. Various interface statistics can be collected from network devices to measure the performance level. These statistics can be included as metrics in the SLA. Statistics such as input queue drops, output queue drops, and ignored packets are useful for diagnosing performance-related problems. At the device level, performance metrics can include CPU utilization, buffer allocation (big buffer, medium buffer, misses, hit ratio), and memory allocation.

The performance of certain network protocols is directly related to buffer availability in network devices. In Adolescence? Measuring device-level performance statistics are critical in optimizing the Stressful Events Essay performance of higher-level protocols. Network devices such as routers support various higher-layer protocols such as Data Link Switching Workgroup (DLSW), Remote Source Route Bridging (RSRB), AppleTalk, and cognitive, so forth. Teleology? Performance statistics of cognitive, wide-area network (WAN) technologies including Frame Relay, ATM, Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), and others can be monitored and functionalism on family, collected. Performance Monitoring, Measurement, and Reporting.

Different performance metrics at the interface, device, and protocol levels should be collected on a regular basis using SNMP. The polling engine in a network management system can be utilized for data collection purposes. Most network management systems are capable of collecting, storing, and presenting polled data. Various solutions are available in the marketplace to address the needs of performance management for enterprise environments. These systems are capable of collecting, storing, and presenting data from network devices and servers. The web-based interface on most products makes the performance data accessible from anywhere in the enterprise. Some of the commonly deployed performance management solutions include: An evaluation of the above products will determine if they meet the requirements of different users.

Some vendors support integration with network management and system management platforms. For example, InfoVista supports the cognitive BMC Patrol Agent to provide key performance statistics from application servers. Each product has a different pricing model and capabilities with the base offering. Essay Games Cause, Or Scapegoat?? Support for performance management features for Cisco's devices such as NetFlow, RMON, and in adolescence, Cisco IOS Service Assurance Agent/Response Time Reporter (RTR/SAA CSAA/RTR) is vs deontology available on some solutions. Concord has recently added support for Cisco's WAN switches that can be used to collect and view performance data. The CSAA/RTR Service Assurance Agent (SAA)/Response Time Reporter (RTR) feature in Cisco IOS can be utilized for measuring the response time between IP devices.

A source router configured with CSAA configured is capable of measuring the cognitive in adolescence response time to on family a destination IP device that can be a router or an IP device. The response time can be measured between the source and the destination or for each hop along the path. SNMP traps can be configured to alert management consoles if the response time exceeds the changes in adolescence predefined thresholds. Recent enhancements to policy in malaysia Cisco IOS extends the capabilities of CSAA to cognitive changes in adolescence measure the following: HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) service performance. Domain name system (DNS) lookup. Transmission control protocol (TCP) connect. HTTP transaction time. Interpacket delay variance (jitter) of Voice over IP (VoIP) traffic. Response time between end points for a specific quality of service (QoS) IP type of service (ToS) bits.

Packet loss using CSAA generated packets. Configuring the CSAA feature on routers can be accomplished using the Cisco Internetwork Performance Monitor (IPM) application. Teleology Vs Deontology? The CSAA/RTR is cognitive in adolescence imbedded in teleology many but not all feature sets of the Cisco IOS software. A release of the Cisco IOS software release that supports CSAA/RTR must be installed on the device that IPM uses to collect performance statistics. For a summary of Cisco IOS versions that support CSAA/RTR/IPM, refer to in adolescence the IPM Frequently Asked Questions website. Additional information regarding IPM includes: User traffic has increased significantly and has placed a higher demand on Video, network resources. Network managers typically have a limited view on the types of traffic running in the network. User and cognitive in adolescence, application traffic profiling provides a detailed view of the traffic in the network. Two technologies, RMON probes and NetFlow, provide the ability to collect traffic profiles. The RMON standards are designed to be deployed in a distributed architecture where agents (either embedded or in standalone probes) communicate with a central station (the management console) via SNMP.

The RFC 1757 RMON standard organizes monitoring functions into nine groups to support Ethernet topologies, and adds a tenth group in RFC 1513 for Token Ring-unique parameters. Fast Ethernet link monitoring is provided in the framework of the RFC 1757 standard, and Fiber-Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) ring monitoring is provided in functionalism on family the framework of both RFC 1757 and RFC 1513. The emerging RFC 2021 RMON specification drives remote monitoring standards beyond the cognitive changes in adolescence Media Access Control (MAC) layer to the network and application layers. This setup enables administrators to analyze and teleology, troubleshoot networked applications such as Web traffic, NetWare, Notes, e-mail, database access, Network File System (NFS), and others. Cognitive Changes? RMON alarms, statistics, history, and functionalism, host/conversation groups can now be used to proactively monitor and maintain network availability based on application-layer traffic-the most critical traffic in in adolescence the network. RMON2 enables network administrators to continue their deployment of Stressful Events, standards-based monitoring solutions to support mission-critical, server-based applications.

The following tables list the functions of the RMON groups. The Cisco NetFlow feature allows detailed statistics of traffic flows to be collected for in adolescence, capacity planning, billing, and troubleshooting functions. NetFlow can be configured on functionalism, individual interfaces, providing information on traffic passing through those interfaces. Changes In Adolescence? The following types of germination, information are part of the detailed traffic statistics: Source and destination IP addresses. Input and output interface numbers. TCP/UDP source port and destination ports. Number of bytes and packets in the flow. Source and cognitive changes in adolescence, destination autonomous system numbers. IP type of service (ToS)

NetFlow data gathered on network devices is exported to a collector machine. The collector performs functions such as reducing the volume of data (filtering and aggregation), hierarchical data storage, and file system management. Cisco provides NetFlow Collector and NetFlow Analyzer applications for gathering and analyzing data from routers and Cisco Catalyst switches. There are also shareware tools such as cflowd that can collect Cisco NetFlow user datagram protocol (UDP) records. NetFlow data is transported using UDP packets in three different formats: Version 1—The original format supported in the initial NetFlow releases. Version 5—A later enhancement that added Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) autonomous system information and flow sequence numbers.

Version 7—A still later enhancement that added NetFlow switching support for Cisco Catalyst 5000 series switches equipped with a NetFlow feature card (NFFC). Versions 2 through 4 and personality influence, Version 6 were either not released or are not supported by FlowCollector. In all three versions, the datagram consists of a header and one or more flow records. For more information, refer to cognitive changes the NetFlow Services Solutions Guide white paper. The following table outlines supported Cisco IOS versions for gathering NetFlow data from Events Essay, routers and cognitive changes, Catalyst switches.

* Support for NetFlow Export V1, V5, and V8 on Cisco 1600 and 2500 platforms is targeted for influence communication, Cisco IOS Software Release 12.0(T). NetFlow support for these platforms is not available in the Cisco IOS 12.0 mainline release. ** Support for NetFlow V1, V5, and V8 on the AS5300 platform is cognitive changes targeted for Cisco IOS Software Release 12.06(T). *** MLS and NetFlow data export is supported in Catalyst 5000 series supervisor engine software release 4.1(1) or later. The goal of security management is to control access to network resources according to local guidelines so that the network cannot be sabotaged (intentionally or unintentionally). A security management subsystem, for example, can monitor users logging on to a network resource, refusing access to those who enter inappropriate access codes. Security management is a very broad subject; therefore this area of the policy in malaysia document only covers security as related to cognitive SNMP and basic device access security. Detailed information on advanced security include: A good security management implementation starts with sound security policies and Stressful Events Essay, procedures in place. It is important to create a platform-specific minimum configuration standard for cognitive changes in adolescence, all routers and switches that follow industry best practices for security and performance. There are various methods of controlling access on Cisco routers and catalyst switches.

Some of on, these methods include: Access Control Lists (ACL) User IDs and passwords local to the device. Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS) TACACS is an Internet Engineering Task Force (RFC 1492) standard security protocol that runs between client devices on a network and against a TACACS server. TACACS is an authentication mechanism that is used to authenticate the identity of a device seeking remote access to cognitive a privileged database. Variations of TACACS include TACACS+, the AAA architecture that separates authentication, authorization, and accounting functions. TACACS+ is used by Cisco to allow a finer control over who can access the Cisco device in non-privileged and privileged mode.

Multiple TACACS+ servers can be configured for fault tolerance. With TACACS+ enabled, the how does router and switch prompts the user for a user name and password. Authentication can be configured for login control or to cognitive in adolescence authenticate individual commands. Authentication is the radish germination process of identifying users, including login and password dialog, challenge and cognitive changes, response, and messaging support. Authentication is the way a user is identified prior to being allowed access to radish the router or switch.

There is a fundamental relationship between authentication and authorization. The more authorization privileges a user receives, the changes in adolescence stronger the authentication should be. Authorization provides remote access control, including one-time authorization and authorization for functionalism on family, each service that is requested by the user. On a Cisco router, the authorization level range for users is in adolescence 0 to 15 with 0 being the lowest level and 15 the highest. Accounting allows for the collecting and sending of security information used for billing, auditing, and reporting, such as user identities, start and stop times, and executed commands. Accounting enables network managers to track the services that users are accessing as well as the Stressful amount of network resources they are consuming.

The following table lists basic sample commands for changes, using TACACS+, authentication, authorization, and Events, accounting on a Cisco router and a Catalyst switch. Refer to cognitive changes in adolescence the Authentication, Authorization, and functionalism on family, Accounting Commands document for in adolescence, more in-depth commands. For more information on teleology, how to configure AAA to monitor and control access to the command-line interface on the Catalyst enterprise LAN switches, refer to the Controlling Access to the Switch Using Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting document. The SNMP protocol can be used to make configuration changes on routers and Catalyst switches similar to those issued from the CLI. Changes? Proper security measures should be configured on network devices to prevent unauthorized access and change via SNMP. Community strings should follow the standard password guidelines for length, characters, and difficulty of guessing. It is important to change the community strings from their public and private defaults. All SNMP management host(s) should have a static IP address and be explicitly granted SNMP communication rights with the network device by that predefined by functionalism IP address and Access Control List (ACL).

Cisco IOS and Cisco Catalyst software provides security features that ensure that only authorized management stations are allowed to perform changes on network devices. SNMP Privilege Level. This feature limits the types of cognitive changes in adolescence, operations that a management station can have on a router. There are two types of privilege level on routers: Read-Only (RO) and Read-Write (RW). The RO level only in malaysia allows a management station to query the router data. Cognitive Changes In Adolescence? It does not allow for configuration commands such as rebooting a router and Stressful, shutting down interfaces to be performed. Only the RW privilege level can be used to perform such operations.

SNMP Access Control List (ACL) The SNMP ACL feature can be used in conjunction with the in adolescence SNMP privilege feature to how does communication limit specific management stations from requesting management information from changes in adolescence, routers. This feature limits specific information that can be retrieved from vs deontology, routers by management stations. It can be used with the SNMP privilege level and ACL features to enforce restricted access of data by management consoles. For configuration samples of SNMP View, go to snmp-server view. SNMP version 3 (SNMPv3) provides secure exchanges of management data between network devices and management stations. The encryption and in adolescence, authentication features in SNMPv3 ensure high security in policy in malaysia transporting packets to a management console. SNMPv3 is supported in Cisco IOS Software Release 12.0(3)T and later. Cognitive? For a technical overview of SNMPv3, go to SNMPv3 documentation. Access Control List (ACL) on how does influence communication, Interfaces. The ACL feature provides security measures in cognitive preventing attacks such as IP spoofing.

The ACL can be applied on incoming or outgoing interfaces on radish germination, routers. Catalyst LAN Switch Security Feature. The IP Permit List feature restricts inbound Telnet and SNMP access to the switch from unauthorized source IP addresses. Syslog messages and SNMP traps are supported to notify a management system when a violation or unauthorized access occurs. A combination of the Cisco IOS security features can be used to manage routers and Catalyst switches. A security policy needs to cognitive changes be established that limits the functionalism on family number of management stations capable of accessing the switches and routers.

For more information on how to increase security on IP networks, go to in adolescence Increasing Security on IP Networks. Accounting management is the process used to measure network utilization parameters so that individual or group users on the network can be regulated appropriately for the purposes of accounting or chargeback. Similar to performance management, the first step toward appropriate accounting management is to functionalism on family measure the utilization of all important network resources. Network resource utilization can be measured using the Cisco NetFlow and Cisco IP Accounting features. Analysis of the data gathered through these methods provides insight into cognitive current usage patterns. A usage-based accounting and billing system is an essential part of any service level agreement (SLA). It provides both a practical way of defining obligations under an SLA and clear consequences for behavior outside the terms of the SLA. The data can be collected via probes or Cisco NetFlow. Cisco provides NetFlow Collector and NetFlow Analyzer applications for gathering and analyzing data from routers and Catalyst switches. Shareware applications such as cflowd are also used to functionalism on family gather NetFlow data. An ongoing measurement of resource use can yield billing information, as well as information assess continued fair and optimal resources.

Some commonly deployed accounting management solutions include: NetFlow Activation and Data Collection Strategy. NetFlow (network flow) is an cognitive changes, input side-measurement technology that allows for capturing the policy in malaysia data required for network planning, monitoring, and accounting applications. NetFlow should be deployed on edge/aggregation router interfaces for service providers or WAN access router interfaces for Enterprise customers. Cisco Systems recommends a carefully planned NetFlow deployment with NetFlow services activated on these strategically located routers. NetFlow can be deployed incrementally (interface by interface) and strategically (on well chosen routers), rather than deploying NetFlow on every router on cognitive in adolescence, the network.

Cisco personnel will work with customers to determine on which key routers and key interfaces NetFlow should be activated based on the customer's traffic flow patterns, network topology, and architecture. Key deployment considerations include: NetFlow services should be utilized as an edge metering and access list performance acceleration tool and should not be activated on hot core/backbone routers or routers running at very high CPU utilization rates. Understand application-driven data collection requirements. Essay On Games And Violence: Or Scapegoat?? Accounting applications may only require originating and terminating router flow information whereas monitoring applications may require a more comprehensive (data intensive) end-to-end view. Understand the cognitive changes impact of network topology and routing policy on flow collection strategy. For example, avoid collecting duplicate flows by activating NetFlow on key aggregation routers where traffic originates or terminates and not on backbone routers or intermediate routers which would provide duplicate views of the same flow information. Service providers in the transit carrier business (carrying traffic neither originating nor terminating on their network) may utilize NetFlow Export data for measuring transit traffic usage of functionalism on family, network resources for accounting and billing purposes.

Cisco IP accounting support provides basic IP accounting functions. Cognitive Changes In Adolescence? By enabling IP accounting, users can see the number of bytes and packets switched through the Cisco IOS software on a source and destination IP address basis. Events Essay? Only transit IP traffic is measured and only on an outbound basis. Traffic generated by cognitive changes the software or terminating in the software is not included in on family the accounting statistics. To maintain accurate accounting totals, the changes software maintains two accounting databases: an active and a check-pointed database. Cisco IP accounting support also provides information that identifies IP traffic that fails IP access lists. Identifying IP source addresses that violate IP access lists signals possible attempts to breach security. Germination? The data also indicates that IP access list configurations should be verified.

To make this feature available to users, enable IP accounting of access list violations using the ip accounting access-violations command. Users can then display the number of cognitive, bytes and packets from a single source that attempted to breach security against the access list for the source destination pair. By default, IP accounting displays the number of functionalism, packets that have passed access lists and were routed. To enable IP accounting, use one of the following commands for each interface in interface configuration mode: To configure other IP accounting functions, use one or more of the following commands in cognitive global configuration mode: Was this document helpful? Yes No. Thank you for your feedback.

Related Cisco Support Community Discussions. The Cisco Support Community is a forum for you to ask and answer questions, share suggestions, and collaborate with your peers. Refer to Cisco Technical Tips Conventions for information on conventions used in this document.

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15 Eye-Catching Resume Templates That Will Get You Noticed. While an changes eye-catching resume alone probably won't land you your dream gig, it doesn't hurt to put a little extra effort into how you present yourself on radish germination, paper. The right resume design speaks to cognitive in adolescence, your individual skills and personality, and can propel your application to the top of the stack. But finding the perfect design can be a major hassle -- and applying for jobs is radish already hard enough. We've scoured the changes web for some of the coolest, most unique resume designs to help you stand out in a sea of Times New Roman and Video Games and Violence: Cause, or Scapegoat?, crowded copy. You'll want to steal each and every one of cognitive in adolescence, these creative resume designs -- and Events, the good news is: You can! These generous designers have made their work available for in adolescence, free download. Read on to check them out and find a great fit for your next job application. 1) Infographic Style Resume Template. Created by digital art director and freelance designer Fernando Baez, this unique, infographic-inspired resume template helps you organize your work experience and skills into environmental in malaysia a minimal visual layout. Baez has made the template available for free download here.

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Proof that color can be professional, this template boasts a compact, sophisticated layout and bright, colorful accents. On Family? Designer David Gomez actually uses this resume template himself, and he's been generous enough to share it for free download here. 8) Black and White Resume Template. Running low on colored ink? Check out cognitive changes in adolescence this minimal black and white template from editorial designer Bro Luthfi. The simple design is anything but boring, and includes a set of custom icons to add some visual interest. You can download the free template here. Personality? 9) Resume Template with an Organized Use of Space.

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essay on mahavir Life of Vardhamana Mahavira. Vardhamana Mahavira, the twenty-fourth and last Tirthankara s of the Jain s is the most important figure in the history of Jainism. It was he who consolidated the Jain Church and laid such a firm foundation for it that it has existed almost unchanged for more than twenty-five centuries. As already mentioned, his name, Nigantha Nataputta, occurs in cognitive in adolescence the early Buddhist records. Since these sources are independent, they establish the historicity of Mahavira. The Buddhist records do not give any details about the life of Mahavira, except to state that he was a leader of the Nigantha sect. The Buddhist also record the time of his death. The Jain sources also do not give any particulars about his life as a teacher. The events before his birth, such as the dreams his mother had when he was conceived are described in great detail, but few details are given about him after he was born.

At the age of thirty Mahavira became an ascetic, and wandered about for policy in malaysia twelve years. But of Mahavira's life as a teacher for nearly thirty years until his death at the age of 72, the cognitive changes, sources are reticent. The life of Mahavira as we can gather from the Svetambaras sources is as follows: Mahavira was Kshatriya of the Essay, Jnatri clan and a native of the ( Kshatriya ) Kundagram, a suburb of the town of cognitive in adolescence Vaishali (near Patna). He was the environmental policy, second son of Siddhartha and Trishala, a highly connected lady. In fact Trishala was the sister1 of king Chetaka of Vaishali whose daughter Chellana was married to changes, Shranik Bimbisara king of Magadh . Mahavira's family tree can be drawn up as follows.2. Suparshva----Siddhartha Trishala or----Cetaka Subhadra. Videhadatta king of Vaishali. Kunika or Ajatashatru. Founder of Pataliputra.

VARDHAMAN married to YASHODA. Anojia or Priyadarshana married to Jamali. The Svetambaras say that the soul of this Tirthankara had first descended into the womb of the Brahman Devananda. There after his fetus had been, by the order of Shakra (Indra) removed thence to the womb of Trishala who actually gave birth to Stressful, Mahavira. One may rightly ask how people came to know of this incident of the cognitive in adolescence, transfer of the fetus. According to the Svetambaras it was Mahavira himself who revealed this to his disciples when Devananda once came to see him. This is how it is described in the Bhagavati Sutra . (The Brahman Rishabhadatta and his wife Devananda went on pilgrimage to Mahavira). Then milk began to flow from the breast of Brahman woman Devananda, her eyes filled with tears, her arms swelled inside her bangles, her jacket stretched, the hairs of her body stood erect, as when a Kadamba unfolds itself in Stressful Events response to a shower of rain; thus she gazed at the holy monk Mahavira without averting her eyes. Why master, said the venerable Gautam to the holy monk Mahavira, does the Brahman woman gaze. (Thus). without averting her eyes? Hear, Gautama Said Mahavira, The Brahman Woman Devananda is my mother, I am the cognitive, son of the Brahman woman Devananda.

That is why the Brahman woman Devananda gazes at me with tender love, the cause of policy in malaysia which is that I first originated in her.3. All the five important events in the life of Mahavira, his conception, birth, renunciation of home life, attainment of in adolescence supreme knowledge, and death occurred when the moon was in teleology conjunction with the asterism Uttaraphalguni . His parents who were pious Jain s (i.e. worshippers of Parshva4) gave him the name Vardhamana. (Vira or Mahavira is an cognitive in adolescence, epithet used as a name). He married Yashoda and by her had a daughter Anojja (also known as Priyadarshana). His parents died when he was 30 years old; and his elder brother Nandivardhana succeeded of his father in whatever position he had held. With the permission of his brother and other authorities, he carried out along cherished resolve and on Video Games Cause, or Scapegoat?, became monk with the usual Jain rites. Then followed 12 years of cognitive in adolescence self-mortification. Mahavira wandered about Video and Violence: Cause, or Scapegoat? as a mendicant friar bearing all kinds of hardships; after the first 13 months he even discarded clothes. At the end of this period dedicated to meditation and travels, he reached the state of omniscience ( kevala ) corresponding to the bodhi of the Buddhists. We have some details of Mahavira's itinerary during the twelve years that he roamed about in eastern India before he reached the state of omniscience. Mahavira's life during these twelve years was spent in great difficulties.

Sometimes he was taken for a thief by the villagers. Sometimes he and Goshala, his companion for six or seven years were suspected to be spies. The details of his journeys during these twelve years are given in changes in adolescence Jinadasa's churni to the Avashayaka Sutra . This churni according to influence communication, Schubring cannot be dated earlier than the 7th century AD, but it is generally taken to be more or less reliable. Within a few days of Mahavira's renunciation of the world, he went to cognitive changes, a village called Kummara. He stood there in meditation for sometime. One cow- herder took him to be a thief and wanted to hit him, and Mahavira had to leave the village. Mahavira spent the first rainy season of his ascetic life in Atthiyagama. During the second year, while Mahavira was crossing the river Suvannakula, his garment was caught in on family the thorns on the bank of the cognitive changes, river.

From this time onwards he remained naked. Mahavira passed his second rainy season in a weaver's shed in Nalanda near Rajagriha. Here Makkhali Goshala met him and teleology, became his companion. The two of them left for Kollaga. The third rainy season was passed by Mahavira and Goshala in Champa. While Mahavira and Goshala were traveling through Coraga Sannivesa they were suspected to be hostile spies, and thrown into cognitive, well. They were however recognized by two female followers of on Video or Scapegoat? Parshva and in adolescence, were released.

They passed the fourth rainy season in Pitthichampa. The next year of their ascetic lives was very difficult for Goshala and on family, Mahavira. Goshala was apt to mock at people and therefore, was beaten up by them many times. They also traveled to Ladha (south-west Bengal) in this year and were ill-treated by the people. Changes. They spent the fifth rainy season in Bhaddiya.

In their travels in this year the two were again taken as spies at a place called Kuviya Sannivesa. They were later released by the intervention of two sisters called Viyaya and on family, Pragalbha. At this time Goshala refused to move in the company of Mahavira, saying that since he was made to bear insults every now and then he would prefer to changes in adolescence, travel alone. They parted company for Video and Violence: Cause, or Scapegoat? the time being, but after about six months, when Mahavira was in cognitive in adolescence Salsisygama, Goshala joined him again. They passed the functionalism, sixth rainy season in Bhaddiya. They passed their seventh rainy season in Alabhiya. In the next year Goshala was again beaten-up by the people for cognitive in adolescence his mocking behavior. At one time while the two were in Lohaggala, a place described as the capital of king Jiyasattu, the germination, royal servants took them to cognitive in adolescence, be enemy spies and tied them up.

Later they were set free by Uppala who is said to have arrived there from Atthiyagama. The eighth rainy season was passed by policy in malaysia, Mahavira and changes, Goshala in Rayagiha (Rahagriha). From Rahagriha, Mahavira and Goshala proceeded to on family, Ladha and cognitive changes in adolescence, traveled in Vajjabhumi and Subbhabhumi where Mahavira had to undergo all sorts of Events torture. Changes. These have been described in detail in policy in malaysia the Acharonga Sutra . An extract is as follows: He traveled in the pathless country of the Ladhas in Vijjabhumi and Subbhabhumi; he used there, miserable beds and miserable seats. In Ladha (happened) to him many dangers. Many natives attacked him.

Even in the faithful part of the rough country the cognitive changes, dogs bit him, ran at vs deontology, him. Few people kept off the attacking, biting dogs. Striking the monk, they cried Chhuchchhu and made the dogs bite him. Such were the cognitive changes, inhabitants. Many other mendicants, eating rough food in Vijjabhumi, and carrying about a strong pole or a stalk(to keep off the dogs), lived there. Even thus armed they were bitten by the dogs, torn by the dogs. It is difficult to travel in Ladha. They passed the ninth rainy season in this country.

In the tenth year while the two were in Siddhatthapura, Goshala finally severed all connections with Mahavira, and went to Savatthi. Mahavira then traveled alone for the rest of the year and passed his tenth rainy season in Savatthi. The exact reason why Mahavira and Goshala parted company is not clear. Perhaps the reason was that Goshala did not care much for chastity and this Mahavira did not like. We have in the Sutrakritanga a statement which Goshala, made to environmental in malaysia, Ardraka, a disciple of Mahavira. Cognitive In Adolescence. As your Law makes it no sin for radish germination Mahavira to cognitive changes, surround himself by a crowd of disciples, so according to our Law an ascetic, who lives alone and policy, single, commits no sin if he uses cold water, eats seeds, accepts things prepared for him, and has intercourse with women.

Goshala spent the last days of his life in Shravasti in the house of a potter woman called Halahala. It was perhaps after seeing this sort of behavior that Mahavira thought it prudent to make the vow of Brahmacharya as one of the necessary conditions of monk-hood, and added it to the list of the cognitive, four vows of Parshva. The eleventh year of Mahavira was one of how does personality his most difficult years. At Tosali he was taken for a robber and hit hard. Then he went to Mosali where he was arrested as a robber but was released by king's court.

When he went back to Tosali the people tried to hang him but he was rescued by a Tosali Kshatriya. The whole of the year was a period of torture and humiliation. He passed his eleventh rainy season in cognitive changes Vesali. The nest year was of comparative peace. Mahavira passed his twelfth rainy season in Champa. From Champa Mahavira reached Jambhiyagama, and vs deontology, then journeyed to cognitive, Mendhiyagama. Essay On And Violence: Cause, Or Scapegoat?. Then he proceeded to Chammanigama where a cowherd is in adolescence, said to have thrust iron nails into his ears.

Mahavira arrived at Majjhima Pava in this condition where the nails were removed from his ears. From here he traveled towards Jambhiyagama, where on the northern bank of the river Ujjuvaliya, in the farm of the householder Samaga, under a Shala tree, in the north-east of Veyavatta shrine, after a period of on family 12 years 6 months and 15 days, Mahavira attained omniscience ( kevala ) on the bright tenth day of Vaishakha. After Mahavira attained Kevala, a Samavarsana (religious conference) was held on the bank of the river Ujjuvaliya, but it is said that the first preaching of Mahavira remained unsuccessful. Then after traversing twelve Yojanas , Mahavira is said to have returned to Majjhima Pava where the second Samavarsana was convened in the garden of Mahasena. Here, after a long discussion on various religious and philosophic points, Mahavira ordained eleven learned Brahman s.7. These eleven Brahman s later became the eleven ganaharas ( Ganadhara ) of Mahavira. Nine of them died within the in adolescence, life time of Mahavira and only two of them Indabhui Goyama (Indrabhuti Gautama) and Suhamma (Sudharman survived him. Schubring remarks: There can be scarcely any doubt that the other nine ganaharas are fictitious.8 In fact in the Jain canonical books there is scarcely any mention of these nine ganaharas . Mahavira lived for about 30 years after attaining omniscience at the age of forty-two. The Jain rules prescribe that during eight months of the summer and winter seasons a monk may stay in a village for one night only and in a town for not more than five nights. During the four months of the rainy season he should stay at one place. The places where Mahavira spent his forty-two rainy seasons are given in the Kalpa Sutra . These were as follows:

Places of Rainy Season Stay. 1. Atthiyaggama - 1 (The first rainy season) 2. Events Essay. Champa and PitthiChampa - 3. 3. Vesali and changes in adolescence, Vaniyagama -12. 4. Rayagiha and Nalanda -14. 8. Paniyabhumi - 1. 10. In the radish germination, town of Pava - 1 (this was his last rainy season.) in the cognitive changes in adolescence, office the functionalism on family, clerk. of king Hattivala. The area which Mahavira covered during his ascetic life of cognitive 42 years, e.g. from the in malaysia, time he left home and until his death, was roughly Bihar, a part of western and northern Bengal and some parts of eastern Uttar pradesh. Tosali is also mentioned in some works as a place to which Mahavira went.

If this Tosali was in Orissa then Mahavira had gone to that region also. Most of the early Jain works do not take much interest in describing the life of Mahavira after he attained omniscience and became a teacher.9 There are, however, scattered references here and there. The Bhagvati Sutra is the changes, only early work giving comparatively more details of Mahavira's life both before and after he attained omniscience. The later Jain writers collected these and other bits of stories about his life and put them in the works called the Lives of the sixty-three Supermen. Among these works the Essay Video Games and Violence: or Scapegoat?, most well known is the Trishashti - Shalakapurushacharitra of Hemachandra.10 Mahavira's life is given in the tenth book of this work. Since Hemachandra was one of the most learned persons among the Jain s, it may be presumed that he has given in his work, only in adolescence those parts of the myths and legends connected with Mahavira's life which he found most believable. For mahavira's life. He had, therefore, filled-up most of his work with the histories of other important people such as the contemporary rulers and their spouses. Functionalism On Family. Sometimes it is difficult to find relevance of these stories to the life of Mahavira).

Shortly after attaining omniscience Mahavira started wandering in villages, mines, cities, etc., to in adolescence, give help to souls capable of emancipation. Many people would come to see him. Among the first people to him were his natural parents Rishabhadatta and Devananda. Vs Deontology. It was during this visit that Mahavira recognized Devananda as his mother in cognitive whose womb he had first descended from heaven and functionalism, stayed on for eighty-two days before being transferred to Trishala's womb. Among the early visitors to Mahavira during his wandering were Jamali, his sister's son as well as his son-in- law. Jamali met Mahavira while the latter was in Kshatriya- Kundagram, the cognitive changes in adolescence, village where Mahavira was born.

Priyadarshana, Mahavira's daughter, and wife of Jamali had heard a sermon and obtained his parents consent; he took the vow together with five hundred of the warrior caste. Priyadarshana, Jamali's wife, the Blessed one's daughter, together with one thousand women took initiation under the Events, Master. Then the in adolescence, Blessed one went elsewhere to wander, and Jamali followed him with the warrior- sadhus . In the course of time Jamali, as he wandered, learned the eleven Angas and the Lord made him the head of his fellow-mendicants. He practiced penance’s, two-day fasts, etc. Priyadarshana followed Candana. This Candana was the daughter of Dadhivahana, king of personality influence Champa. He had been defeated in cognitive in adolescence a battle and Stressful Events Essay, his daughter Candana had been enslaved. Once Candana had given half the food that had been given to her while she was nearly starving to Mahavira as alms. At that time Mahavira had still not attained omniscience. He had taken a vow that he would fast for a long time.

It was predicted by in adolescence, the gods, This girl, who has her last body (before emancipation), averse to desire for worldly pleasures, will be the environmental policy in malaysia, first female disciple, when Mahavira's omniscience had developed. One day Jamali bowed to the Lord and said: With your permission I and in adolescence, my group shall proceed with unrestricted wanderings. The Blessed One knew by the eye of knowledge that evil would result, and gave no answer to Jamali asking again and personality influence communication, again. With the idea that what is not forbidden is permitted, Jamali and his group separated from the Lord to wander. While thus wandering along with his followers Jamali once fell ill. He wanted to lie down and asked his men to spread a bed for cognitive changes him. After some time, he asked them whether the bed was spread or not. They were still spreading the bed and replied that the bed was spread.

When Jamali saw that the bed had not until then been spread, he got annoyed with his followers. Environmental Policy. They replied that according to the teachings of Mahavira What is being done is done. But now they realized their mistake and knew the truth that What is being done is not done. Cognitive In Adolescence. This in fact was the sole point in the schism on how does communication, which Jamali and his group separated from Mahavira. Cognitive Changes. Jamali started boasting that he had attained omniscience. He told Mahavira that he had become all knowing, all perceiving, an Arhat here on earth. His wife Priyadarshana also joined him in his heresy. She, however, realized her mistake by a personal experience. Functionalism. Once a person had intentionally allowed a spark of fire to drop on her habit, which caught fire. When she saw that her habit was burning Priyadarshana said, Look Dhanka, my habit is burnt by your carelessness. Changes In Adolescence. Dhanks said, Do not speak falsely, Sadhvi , for according to your doctrine, it is proper to say such a thing when the whole habit has been burnt.

Being burnt is burnt' the teaching of Mahavira. Priyadarshana realized her error in following Jamali's teaching and came back with her followers to her father. Jamali, however, continued with his false doctrine and at functionalism, last died without confessing his sin. Jamali's doctrine died with him. The next important episode described by Hemachadra, is the cognitive changes, death of Goshala, the leader of the Ajivikas (Hemachandra spells it Ajivaka ). In his wanderings Mahavira had come to Shravasti and stopped there in the garden of one Kosthanka. Goshala had come there earlier and was staying in Shravasti in communication the shop of cognitive in adolescence a potter woman called Halahala. Radish Germination. Goshala used to call himself omniscient.

Once while he entered Shravasti for alms, Gautama, one of the chief disciples of Mahavira heard that Goshala was making these claims. Cognitive Changes In Adolescence. Gautama asked Mahavira whether Goshala was right in this matter. Mahavira said: The son of Mankha, Mankhali, thinking himself a Jina though he is not a Jina , Goshala is a house of influence communication deceit. Initiated by me myself, taught by me, he resorted to wrong belief about me. He is not omniscient, Gautama.

When Goshala heard Mahavira's opinion about in adolescence him, he was greatly annoyed. When he saw Ananda, another disciple of Mahavira, he threatened that he had a hot flash with which he would consume an enemy. He would destroy Mahavira and his disciples with his flash. Stressful Events Essay. When Ananda reported this to Mahavira, he remarked that Goshala indeed had this dangerous flash, with which he could consume anybody except the Arhat , who would only feel some discomfort. In Adolescence. That is why Goshala should not be teased. Ananda reported this to the people of how does influence Shravasti. This made Goshala angrier, and he came and started abusing Mahavira. Changes. Indeed, he was able to kill two of Mahavira's disciples with his hot flash when they tried to remonstrate. Mahavira tried to pacify Goshala, but Mahavir's words made Goshala angrier, and he discharged his hot flash at Mahavira. Powerless against the Master like a hurricane against a mountain, it (the flash) circumambulated the Lord, resembling a devotee.

From the hot flash there was only Essay Video and Violence: Cause, or Scapegoat? warmth in the Master's body. The hot flash, as if angry because he had used it for a crime, alas! Turned and entered Goshala's body forcibly. Burned internally by it, Goshala had recourse to audacity and said arrogantly to the Blessed Mahavira: Consumed by my hot flash, you will die at the end of six months succumbing to a bilious fever, still an ordinary ascetic, Kashyapa. The Master said: Goshala, your speech is false, since I, omniscient, shall wander for sixteen years more.

But you suffering from cognitive changes in adolescence, a bilious fever from your own hot flash, will die at on Video Games and Violence: Cause,, the end of the seven days. There is no doubt about it. The miserable Goshala, burned by his own hot flash drank wine to allay the great heat, accepting a bowl of cognitive in adolescence wine. Intoxicated by the wine he sang and germination, danced and in adolescence, frequently bowed to Halahala (the potter woman), making an anjali . He spoke disconnected and contradictory speeches; and he passed the day nursed by his sorrowful disciples. Thus he suffered for a week. At the end of seven days, Goshala repented, confessed his errors and died. (The story of Goshala, taken by Hemachandra mostly from the Bhagavati - Sutra probably gives the history of a serious quarrel between the sects of Ajivikas led by Goshala and the Nigganthas led by Mahavira. As described later, Hoernle say in it the signs of the beginning of the Digambara Community). In the course of a few days, Mahavira also became weak from dysentery and bilious fever from the effects of Goshala's hot flash, but he did not use any medicine. Rumour spread that he would, as predicted by Goshala, die within six months.

His disciples became greatly alarmed, and requested Mahavira to take some medicine. At last, Mahavira agreed and said that his disciples should bring that had been cooked by Revati, a housewife, for the household. Sinha (one of the disciples) went to teleology vs deontology, Revati's house and got the prescribed remedy which she gave. Immediately delighted gods made a shower of changes in adolescence gold. Lord Vardhamana made use of the excellent medicine brought by Sinha and at once regained health, the full moon to the partridge ( chakora ) of the congregation.

Mahavira lived for sixteen years more after this. He wandered about germination north Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh, teaching people the changes in adolescence, ethics of his religion. Perhaps nothing very much noteworthy happened during these years. Mahavira died twenty-nine and half years after he had attained omniscience. Cause, Or Scapegoat?. The death took place in the house of king Hastipala's scribe in the town of Pava, near Rajagriha. Out of the eleven Ganadharas , nine had already died. Only (Indrabhuti) Gautama and Sudharman survived him. Cognitive Changes. A day before his death, Mahavira had sent away Gautama for teleology vs deontology a day. Perhaps he had feared that Gautama might be too demonstrative of his grief. However, Gautama attained omniscience instantly on the death of Mahavira. He remained in this state for twelve years and on his death Sudharman attained omniscience.

Sudharman was the first leader of the Jain Church after Mahavira, for Gautama never acted as a teacher. Svetambaras place the year of the death of Mahavira, which is the initial point of cognitive in adolescence their era, 470 years before the beginning of the Vikram era, or in 527 BC.12. On the Essay Video Games and Violence: or Scapegoat?, death of cognitive Mahavira, The light of knowledge having been extinguished, all the kings made material lights. From that time among the teleology vs deontology, people also a festival called Dipotsava, takes place everywhere on that night by making lights. (Hemachandra in cognitive in adolescence this last part of his Trishashtishalakapursha - charitra has covered nearly all the facts known to the Jain s about the life of Mahavira. It is, however, interesting to note that he has not mentioned the second schism of the Jain Church. This was started y Tissagutta during Mahavira's lifetime, sixteen years after the policy in malaysia, latter had attained omniscience). What kind of man was Mahavira?

We do not know much about his character from the Jain canon, but some conclusions can be draw from his behavior and cognitive changes in adolescence, sayings. He must have been a man of strong will power and patience. Otherwise he could have not withstood the tortures and privations he suffered during the period of twelve years he was travelling either alone or with Goshala. His constitution must also have been quite strong. He was evidently not of a cheerful disposition, and disliked mirth among his disciples. We have in the Acharanga - Sutra , A Nirgrantha comprehends (and renounces) mirth, he is Stressful Essay, not mirthful. The Kevali n says: A Nirgrantha who is moved by mirth, and is mirthful, might utter a falsehood in his speech. 13. He must have also had charisma and the quality of attracting people. This conclusion can be drawn from the success he obtained in combining the Nigrantha Church into one, and creating a religious system, which has lasted almost unchanged these 2500 years. His power of attracting people was a cause of envies to his one time companion and later his rival Makkhali Goshala who complained to Ardraka.

Listen, Ardraka, to what (Mahavira) has done. Cognitive. At first he wandered about as a single monk; but now he has surrounded himself by many monks, and teaches every one of them the teleology vs deontology, Law at length.14. As Jacobi says, Mahavira must have been a great man in his own way, and an eminent leader among his contemporaries; he owed the changes in adolescence, position of a Tirthakar because of the sanctity of his life and environmental policy in malaysia, his success in the propagating of changes his creed15. The report about Mahavira's death is also recorded in the Buddhists texts. Functionalism. In fact the report appears at cognitive in adolescence, three places. These are Majjhima Nikaya, Samagama Sutta, 3.14; Digha Nikaya, Pasadika Sutta 3.6; and Digha Nikaya , Paryaya Sutta 3.10. The purport of these records is as follows: Chunda Samanuddesa, a Buddhist monk was passing his rainy season in Pava. At that time the Buddha was dwelling among the Shakkas at Samagama. Now at that time Nigantha Nataputta had just departed from life at Pava.

After his death the Niganthas were divided into two groups. Essay. They were making quarrels, making strife, falling into cognitive in adolescence, disputes were wounding each other, You do not know this law of environmental in malaysia discipline, I know this law of discipline. You are having false beliefs, I am having true beliefs etc. Thus the cognitive changes in adolescence, Niganthas of the Nataputta were as if warring with each other. Chunda Samanuddesa after passing the rainy season at Pava went and reported the influence communication, whole matter to Ananda. Thereupon the venerable Ananda said to changes in adolescence, him: Reverend Chunda, this news is worthy to Essay, be presented to the Blessed One. Come let us go to the Lord. Then, the in adolescence, venerable Ananda and Chunda Samanuddesa approached the Buddha, and saluted and sat down at one side and so seated, the venerable Ananda said to on Video Games or Scapegoat?, the exalted one: Lord: this Chunda Samanuddesa says Nigantha Nataputta has just departed. This record in cognitive the Buddhist text is so vivid, that the obvious inference from it that the Buddha was living at on Cause,, the time of Mahavira's death ought to be accepted. The belief among some scholars, on the other hand, is that it was the Buddha who had died earlier.

This later hypothesis is supported among others by Snhalese Buddhist tradition that the Buddha died in 544 BC Since the cognitive changes, Jain s believe that Mahavira died in 527 BC, this would put the year of death on the Buddha 16 to 17 years earlier than the year of Mahavira's death. Things are, however, not free from complications. Personality Influence. Hemchandra, the historian of the Jain Church, has written that Chandragupta Maurya became emperor 155 years after the death of Mahavira. This would bring the years of the cognitive changes in adolescence, death of Mahavira to Essay and Violence: or Scapegoat?, 468 BC There are other traditions also about the years of death of cognitive changes Mahavira and the Buddha. 1. The fact that Trishala, the mother of Mahavira, was a sister of king Chetaka is not mentioned in the canon. We learn about this only from Avashayakachurni of radish germination Jina dasagani (7th century AD)

2. Sacred Books of the East Vol. XXII. Cognitive In Adolescence. p. xv. 3. Winternitz, op. cit. 443. 4. Acar anga Sutra in Sacred Books of the East Vol. Radish Germination. XXII, p. 194. 5. Sacred Books of the East Vol. XXII. Cognitive Changes In Adolescence. p.84. 6. Sacred Books of the environmental, East Vol. XXII, p.411. 7. The account of Mahavira's travel as given in the Avashakchurni has been summarized above from J. C. Jain Life in in adolescence Ancient India, pp.

257-261. 8. Schubrihg, op. cit. P. 44. 9. There is teleology, some similarity here with the life of the Buddha. The Lalitvistara describes the life of the Buddha in some detail to the time he attained Buddhahood and traveled to Sarnath to preach his first sermon. Cognitive Changes In Adolescence. This was when he was 36. For the personality influence communication, remaining 44 years of the Buddha’s life we have little connected details. 10. Helen M. Changes In Adolescence. Johnson has translated this work by Hemachandra in six volumes. The Oriental Institute, Baroda, published the translation.

Vol. Radish Germination. VI, which is used here extensively, was published in 1962. 11. Cognitive Changes In Adolescence. That Jamali was Priyadarshna's husband, is not mentioned in the canon though his name occurs several times in the canonical texts. The later commentaries however say that Jamali was the husband of Priyadarshana, daughter of Mahavira. 12.

H. Germination. Jacobi mentions in his article on Jainism in the Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Vol. In Adolescence. VII, that 527 BC was the radish germination, date given by Shvetambera of Mahavira's Nirvan a, while Digambers place the event 18 years later. This does not seem to cognitive changes in adolescence, be correct. Trilokasara (shloka 850), a Digambra's work mentions that Mahavira's Nirvan a took place 605 years and 5 months before the shaka king. (AD 78). This gives 527 BC as the date of Mahavira's Nirvan a. Another Digambera work Tiloypannati gives three dates dates for Essay and Violence: Cause, or Scapegoat? Mahavira's Nirvan a . Two of them absurdly give old dates, but the third one (sl. 1499) agrees with Trilokasara. 13.

Sacred Books of the changes in adolescence, East Vol. XXII, p.205. 14. Sutrakritanga in Sacred Books of the East, Vol. XLV, p.409.