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oedipus essay joke Ed Friedlander, M.D. This website collects no information. Athens Vs Sparta? If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by what were the three estates society, law. I have no sponsors and athens vs sparta do not host paid advertisements. By Panos Ioannides Essay? All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified April 1, 2010. . pluck out the heart of my mystery. -- Hamlet.

This page is for high school and college students, or anyone else. Everybody brings a different set of experiences to vs sparta, a book, a theater, or a classroom. Essay Dream Act? Although I've tried to help, ultimately you'll need to athens, decide for yourself about Shakespeare and Hamlet. I hope you have as much fun as I have! Once you get past the minor difficulties posed by the language, you'll probably enjoy Hamlet -- and not just for its action. Hamlet is the first work of literature to acid, look squarely at the stupidity, falsity and sham of everyday life , without laughing and without easy answers. In a world where things are not as they seem, Hamlet's genuineness, thoughtfulness, and sincerity make him special. Hamlet is no saint. But unlike most of the other characters (and most people today), Hamlet chooses not to compromise with evil. Dying, Hamlet reaffirms the tragic dignity of a basically decent person in a bad world . Hamlet is the first work of literature to show an ordinary person looking at the futility and wrongs in life, asking the vs sparta toughest questions and about Dream Act coming up with honest semi-answers like most people do today. Unlike so much of popular culture today, Hamlet leaves us with the message that life is indeed worth living, even by imperfect people in an imperfect world.

Shakespeare's Hamlet is athens full of talk about death, dead bodies, murder, suicide, disease, graves, and so forth. And there is no traditional Christian comfort or promise of eventual justice or happiness for the good people. But the message is ultimately one of Big; DREAM, hope. You can be a hero. Aristotle wrote that in a tragedy, the protagonist by definition learns something. Whatever you may think of Aristotle's reductionist ideas about serious drama, Shakespeare's heroes all develop philosophically. (You may not agree with everything they decide.) As you read the play, watch how Hamlet -- who starts by wishing he was dead -- comes to terms with life, keeps his integrity, and athens strikes back successfully at what's wrong around him. So far as I know, it's the first time this theme -- now so common -- appeared in world literature.

Revenge should know no bounds. -- Claudius. Hamlet, our hero, is the son of the yahoo directory uk previous king of Denmark, also named Hamlet (Old Hamlet, Hamlet Senior as we'd say), who has died less than two months ago. Hamlet remembers his father as an all-around good guy, and as a tender husband who would even make a special effort to shield his wife's face from the cold Danish wind. The day Hamlet was born, Old Hamlet settled a land dispute by killing the athens King of Norway in personal combat. How old is Hamlet? We have contradictory information. The gravedigger mentions that Hamlet is thirty years old, and by Panos Ioannides Essay that the jester with whom Hamlet played as a child has been dead for twenty-three years. A thirty-year-old man might still be a college student.

However, Ophelia is unmarried in an era when girls usually married in their teens, and several characters refer to Hamlet's youth. So we might prefer to think that Hamlet is in his late teens or early twenties. Vs Sparta? And many people have seen Hamlet's bitter, sullen outlook at the beginning of the play as typical of youth. Gregory,? You'll need to decide that one for athens yourself. What Society? (I think thirty might be a mistake for twenty. Richard Burbage, who played Hamlet first, was older than twenty, and perhaps the editor thought twenty must be wrong. You decide.)

Hamlet was a college student at Wittenberg when his father died. (Of course the historical Hamlet, who lived around 700, could not have attended Wittenberg, founded in 1502). Athens Vs Sparta? The monarchy went to his father's brother, Claudius. (Shakespeare and the other characters just call him King.) Hamlet's mother, Gertrude, married Claudius within less than a month. Old Hamlet died during his after-lunch nap in his garden. The public was told that Old Hamlet died of snakebite. The truth is that Claudius murdered Old Hamlet by pouring poison in his ear. Old Hamlet died fast but gruesomely. The ghost describes the Gregory, king's seduction of the queen (the garbage passage) just prior to describing the actual murder. This makes the most sense if the queen actually committed adultery before the murder, and that the vs sparta affair was its actual motive. Ioannides Essay? Even in our modern age, if a twenty-plus-year marriage ends with the sudden death of one partner, and the survivor remarries four weeks later, I'd believe that there had probably been an adulterous affair. And everybody at the Danish court must have thought the same thing. If you don't know this, you're naive.

It's not clear that Gertrude actually knew a murder was committed, and we never get proof that anyone else knew for certain, either. But everybody must have been suspicious. And nobody was saying anything. Young Hamlet is vs sparta very well-liked. He is a soldier, a scholar, and by Panos Ioannides a diplomat. We learn that he's the glass of athens vs sparta, fashion and Dream Big; DREAM the mould of form, i.e., the young man that everybody else tried to imitate. He's also loved of the athens distracted multitude, i.e., the ordinary people like him, and if anything were to happen to him, there would be riots. Exactly why Claudius rather than Hamlet succeeded Old Hamlet is Essay Dream not explained. Hamlet refers (V.ii) to the election, i.e., the choosing of a new king by a vote of a small number of warlords (as in Macbeth). Vs Sparta? (By Shakespeare time, it was the Danish royal family that voted.) Interestingly, the Norwegian king is also succeeded by his brother, rather than by his own infant son Fortinbras. Or the royal title may have gone to Claudius simply because he married the royal widow, who he calls our imperial jointress. Some people may tell you that in The History of the Essay, the Dark Ages, Jutland may have practiced matrilineal descent, i.e., a society where family identity and inheritance is passed through the female line.

Since this is historical fiction, and since the historical Hamlet's uncle simply held a public coup, this seems moot. Matrilineal descent is known among some primitive people in our own century, and is attested to by ancient writers on various cultures. The advantage of this system is that the best men tend to vs sparta, get picked for hereditary positions of power. Essay? With male-line succession, the old king is followed by his oldest son, who may be stupid and vs sparta get himself killed quickly. Under matrilineal descent, the old king picks the man who will actually wield power after he is gone, but still preserves his own genes. In spite of Violin, what anybody else may tell you, we know of no human culture where the men, who are physically stronger and do the fighting, let the women make the laws and the big decisions (a matriarchy). You may decide this is unfortunate.

A real anthropologist, Eric J. Smith [link is now down] at U. Wash., points out that its checks-and-balances system made the Iroquois government the closest thing to vs sparta, a matriarchy ever described. The play opens on the battlements of the castle. It's midnight. (Shakespeare anachronistically says 'Tis now struck twelve.) Francisco has been keeping watch, and Dream Big; Bernardo comes to relieve him. Neither man recognizes the other in athens, the darkness, and each issues a tense challenge. Ioannides Essay? Francisco remarks, It's bitter cold. and athens I am sick at heart. This sets the scene, since Shakespeare had no way of darkening his theater or showing the weather. The fact that each guard suspects the other of being an in hydrochloric acid intruder indicates all is not well, even though Francisco does not say why he is athens sick at heart.

Francisco leaves, and Marcellus arrives to share Bernardo's watch. Dream Big; DREAM? Bernardo is surprised to see also Hamlet's school friend Horatio (who has just arrived at the castle; we never really find out why he's here) with Marcellus. Marcellus and Bernardo think they have twice seen the ghost of Old Hamlet. Athens? Horatio is skeptical. The ghost appears, the men agree it looks like the in hydrochloric acid old king, and vs sparta Horatio (who is Gregory, by Panos a scholar and thus knows something of the paranormal) tries to talk to it. The ghost turns away as if driven back / offended by the word heaven (God), and it disappears. The men talk about Old Hamlet. They also talk about the unheralded naval build-up commanded by the present king. This is in response to athens, an expected military invasion by the Norwegian prince Fortinbras, who wishes to regain the what the three estates in french society territories lost by his father's death.

The men wonder whether the ghost is returned to athens, warn about military disaster. The ghost reappears. The men try to talk to it to find out what it wants. They try to magnesium acid, strike it. It looks like it is about to speak, but suddenly a rooster crows (the signal of morning) and the ghost fades away. Athens Vs Sparta? (As usual, Shakespeare is telescoping time.) Marcellus relates a beautiful legend that during the Christmas season, roosters might crow through the in hydrochloric acid night, keeping the dark powers at bay. Claudius holds court. This is apparently his first public meeting since becoming king.

Also present are the queen, Hamlet, the royal counselor Polonius, Polonius's son Laertes, and the Council -- evidently the warlords who support his monarchy. Athens? Hamlet is still wearing mourning black, while everybody else (to please Claudius) is dressed festively. Claudius wants to on plagiarism, show what a good leader he is. He begins by athens, talking about the mix of sorrow for his brother's death, and of the Violin Essay joy in his new marriage. Athens Vs Sparta? He reminds the Council that they have approved his marriage and accession, and thanks them. Yahoo Uk? Claudius announces that Fortinbras of Norway is raising an athens army to try to take back the land his father lost to Old Hamlet. Claudius emphasizes that Fortinbras can't win militarily. Claudius still wants a diplomatic solution and sends two negotiators to uk, Norway. Next, Laertes asks permission to vs sparta, return to directory, France.

The king calls on Polonius. When Polonius is talking to athens, the king, he always uses a flowery, more-words-than-needed style. Polonius can be played either for humor, or as a sinister old man. (Sinister, evil people can still do foolish things -- like getting themselves caught spying on someone who is very upset.) Either fits nicely with the play's theme of phoniness. Polonius says he is agreeable, and the king gives permission. This was rehearsed, and Claudius is taking advantage of the opportunity to look reasonable, especially because he is about to deal with Hamlet, who wants to return to college. Claudius calls Hamlet cousin (i.e., close relative) and son (stepson), and asks why he is on plagiarism still sad. Hamlet puns.

His mother makes a touching speech about how everything must die, passing from nature to eternity, i.e., a better afterlife. She asks him why he is still acting (seems) sad. Hamlet replied he's not acting, just showing how he really feels. Athens Vs Sparta? Claudius makes a very nice speech, asks that Hamlet stay at the court, and yahoo reaffirms that Hamlet is heir to his property and vs sparta throne. Hamlet's mother adds a nice comment, and Hamlet agrees to stay.

He may not really have a choice, especially since Claudius calls his answer gentle and unforced. Does Claudius really care about Hamlet? Maybe. What Were The Three In French? The meeting is over, and Claudius announces there will be a party, at vs sparta, which he'll have the guards shoot off a cannon every time he finishes a drink. Hamlet is left alone. Estates? He talks to himself / the audience. Today's movie directors would use voice-overs for such speeches (soliloquies if they are long and athens the speaker is alone, asides if they are short and there are other folks on stage.) He talks about losing interest in life and in hydrochloric acid how upset he is by his mother's remarriage and its implications. (In Shakespeare's era, it was considered morally wrong to marry your brother's widow. Henry VIII's first wife had been married to athens, Henry's older brother, who died, but the marriage had not been consummated. This puzzle sparked the English reformation.) Hamlet is trapped in Dream Act, a situation where things are obviously very wrong.

Like other people at athens vs sparta, such times, Hamlet wishes God hadn't forbidden suicide. Interestingly, he does not mention being angry about not being chosen king. Horatio, Marcellus, and Bernardo come in. Hamlet is surprised to see his school buddy. Horatio says he's truant (not true), and that he came to see the old king's funeral (not true -- he's much too late). Hamlet jokes that his mother's wedding followed so quickly that they served the by Panos Ioannides Essay leftovers from the funeral dinner. Athens Vs Sparta? (I think Horatio probably came to Elsinore out of Dream Big; DREAM, concern for Hamlet, spoke with the guards first, and was invited at once to athens, see the ghost.

Some guys don't say to another guy, I came to uk, see YOU even when it's obvious.) You'll need to decide what Hamlet means when he says that he sees his father in athens vs sparta, his mind's eye. Ioannides? Sometimes, bereaved people notice their eyes fooling them -- shadows forming themselves in athens, the mind into an image of the deceased. Uk? Other mourners report even more vivid experiences that they do recognize to be tricks of perception. Or perhaps Hamlet is simply thinking a lot about his father, or holding onto his good memories. The friends tell Hamlet about the ghost. Athens? Hamlet asks what the ghost looked like -- skin color and beard colors -- and magnesium in hydrochloric acid agrees they match his father.

Hamlet asks the men to athens vs sparta, keep this a secret and to let him join them the next night, hoping the ghost will return and talk. Afterwards he says he suspects foul play. Everybody else probably does, too, even without any ghost. Laertes says goodbye to Ophelia, his sister. He asks her to write daily, and urges her not to get too fond of Hamlet, who has been showing a romantic interest in her. The Three? At considerable length, he explains how Hamlet will not be able to marry beneath his station, and explicitly tells her not to have sex (your chaste treasure open) with him. Athens? Ophelia seems to be the passive sort, but she has enough spunk to urge him to live clean too, and not be a hypocrite. Laertes suddenly realizes he has to leave quickly (uh huh). Polonius comes in and lays some famous fatherly advice on Violin Essay, Laertes.

It's today's self-centered worldly wisdom. Listen closely, and say less than you know. Think before you act. Don't be cold, but don't be too friendly. Spend most of your time with your genuine friends who've already done you good. Athens? Choose your battles carefully, and fight hard. Dress for success. In Hydrochloric? Don't loan or borrow money. And most important -- look out for Number One ('Above all -- To thine own self be true.') I get quite a bit of mail about Polonius's advice, especially about To thine own self be true. Athens? Some people see this as Shakespeare's asking us to in hydrochloric, be totally honest in our dealings with others.

Others have seen this as a call to mystical experience, union with the vs sparta higher self. I can't see this. The key is to thine own self. In Shakespeare's time, the expression true to meant be loyal or look out first for the interests of. ; it also meant fidelity to a romantic relationship. This usage recurs in the Beatle' song All My Loving. To be false implies making a promise or a pretense and not delivering. If it's clear up front that you don't do favors without expecting something in return, nobody can complain about being misled.

The rest of Polonius's advice is otherwise totally worldly, practical, and amoral (though not immoral) -- what one would read in a self-help book. Polonius is not the Essay Big; Act model for athens scrupulous honesty. Polonius tells Reynaldo to lie. Polonius lies to the king and queen, claiming he knew nothing of Hamlet's romantic interest before he saw his love letters. Essay? And Polonius tells his daughter that everybody puts on a false front. Hearing this actually makes the king feel ashamed. When Laertes leaves, Polonius questions Ophelia about her relationship with Hamlet. One can play Polonius as kind and jocular with his son, rough (even cruel and obscene) with his daughter. He calls her naïve, orders her not even to talk to athens, Hamlet, and demands to see his love letters to the three estates society, her.

Contemporary readers who are puzzled by vs sparta, this should remember that in Hamlet's era (and Shakespeare's), a father would probably get less money from Gregory,, his future son-in-law if his daughter was not a virgin. Polonius, of course, pretends he cares only about Ophelia's well-being. Hamlet, Horatio, and the guards are on the walls just after midnight, waiting for the ghost. The king is athens still partying, and trumpets and cannon go off because he's just finished another drink. Hamlet notes that this is a custom more honored in the breach than [in] the observance, now a popular phrase. (This was a Danish custom in Shakespeare's time too. Were? The Danish people's neighbors make fun of them for vs sparta this. The History Of The Violin? Old Hamlet may not have engaged in the practice, hence the breach.) This fact inspires Hamlet to make a long speech, So, oft it chances. , about how a person's single fault (a moral failure, or even a physical disfigurement) governs how people think about them, overriding everything that is good. Of course this doesn't represent how Hamlet thinks about Claudius (who he detests for athens lots of reasons), and it's hard to explain what this is of the Essay doing in the play -- apart from the fact that it's very true-to-life. You may decide that Hamlet is restating the play's theme of appearance-vs.-reality. The ghost enters.

Hamlet challenges it. He asks whether it is athens good or evil, his real father or a devilish deception. He asks why it has returned, making us think about the unthinkable and Violin Essay unknown (so horridly to shake our disposition / with thoughts beyond the reaches of our souls). The ghost beckons Hamlet. Horatio warns him not to follow, because the ghost might drive him insane. Horatio notes that everybody looking down from an unprotected large height thinks about athens jumping to death (a curious fact). Yahoo? Hamlet is determined to follow the ghost, and probably draws his sword on his companions. (So much for the idea that Hamlet is psychologically unable to take decisive action.) Hamlet says, My fate cries out, i.e., that he's going to his destiny.

He walks off the stage after the ghost. Directors often have Hamlet hold the handle of his sword in front of his face to athens vs sparta, make a cross, holy symbol for yahoo directory uk protection. Marcellus (who like everybody else surely suspects Claudius of foul play) says, Something is rotten in athens vs sparta, the state of Denmark (usually misquoted and misattributed to Hamlet himself.) Horatio says God will take care of essay, Hamlet (Heaven will direct it). Athens? Nay, says Marcellus, unwilling to leave the supernatural up to God, let's follow him. The scene change is to indicate that the on plagiarism place has changed, i.e., Hamlet and the ghost are higher up.

Hamlet demands that the vs sparta ghost talk, and he does. He claims to be Old Hamlet. Because he died with unconfessed sins, he is going to burn for a long time before he finds rest. He gives gruesome hints of an afterlife that he is not allowed to describe. (Even the yahoo directory more fortunate dead returning to earth are fat weeds.) He then reveals that he was murdered by Claudius, who had been having sex with the queen. (At least the ghost says they were already having an affair. Before he describes the murder, the ghost says that Claudius had won to his shameful lust the affections of the vs sparta seeming-virtuous queen.) The ghost's account now becomes very picturesque. About? Old Hamlet says that Claudius's natural gifts were far inferior to his own, i.e., that Old Hamlet was much better looking, smarter, nicer, and so forth. Claudius was a smooth talker (wit) and gave her presents.

Old Hamlet says that lust, though to a radiant angel linked / Will sate itself in a celestial bed / And prey on garbage. In plain language, Gertrude was too dirty-minded for a nice man like Old Hamlet. She jumped into bed with a dirtball. Claudius poured poison in the king's ear. Old Hamlet tells the athens vs sparta grisly effects of the poison. It coagulated his blood and on plagiarism caused his skin to crust, killing him rapidly. His line O horrible, O horrible, most horrible! is probably better given to Hamlet. The ghost calls on Hamlet to avenge him by vs sparta, killing Claudius. He also tells him not to kill his mother. (Taint not thy mind. doesn't mean to Essay about Dream Big; DREAM Act, think nice thoughts, which would be impossible, but simply not to think of athens, killing her.) The ghost has to leave because morning is approaching. Hamlet says he'll remember what he's heard while memory holds a seat [i.e., still functions] in on plagiarism, this distracted globe.

By distracted globe, Hamlet probably means both my distraught head and this crazy world. (The name of the theater, too.) Hamlet already has made up his mind about Claudius and his mother, without the ghost's help. So before considering whether the ghost is telling the truth, Hamlet calls his mother a most pernicious woman, and says of Claudius one may smile, and vs sparta smile, and Essay about Dream Big; DREAM be a villain. Vs Sparta? We all know that from experience -- most really bad people pretend to be nice and friendly. When Hamlet's friends come in, he says, There's never a [i.e., no] villain in yahoo, all Denmark. He probably meant to say, . as Claudius, but realizes in midsentence that this isn't the thing to say. He finishes the athens sentence as a tautology (Villains are knaves.) Hamlet says he thinks the ghost is were in french telling the truth, says he will feign madness (put an antic disposition on vs sparta, -- he doesn't explain why), and (perhaps re-enacting a scene in by Panos Ioannides Essay, the old play) swears them to secrecy on his sword and in athens vs sparta, several different locations while the ghost hollers Swear from below the stage. It's obvious that Hamlet's excitement is comic, and the scene is funny. Hamlet calls the ghost boy, truepenny, and old mole, and says to his friends, You hear this fellow in the cellarage. It seems to me that Shakespeare is parodying the older play, and what estates in french even making fun of the idea of ghosts, and athens vs sparta that he's saying, Don't take this plot seriously, but listen to the ideas. Horatio comments how strange this all is, and Hamlet (who likes puns) says that they should welcome the ghost as a stranger in need. There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy. (Ethan Hawke has our philosophy.

I wonder if this might be what Shakespeare actually wrote.) In Shakespeare's era, philosophy means what we call natural science. Notice that Horatio, who is skeptical of ghosts, is the one who suggests trusting God when the ghost appears, and who will later talk about flights of were estates in french society, angels carrying Hamlet's soul to heaven. Shakespeare's more rational-minded contemporaries (and probably Shakespeare himself) probably did not believe in ghosts. But scientific atheism (scientific reductionism, naïve naturalism) wasn't a clearly-articulated philosophy in Shakespeare's era. Some time has passed.

From Ophelia's remarks in athens vs sparta, III.ii. (which happens the day after II.i), we learn that Old Hamlet has now been dead for four months. Shakespeare telescopes time. We learn (in this scene) that Ophelia has (on Polonius's orders) refused to Essay about Dream Big;, accept love letters from Hamlet and told him not to athens vs sparta, come near her. We learn in were the three estates, the next scene (which follows soon after) that the king and queen have sent to Wittenberg for Hamlet's long-time friends, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern (two common Danish surnames), and that they are now here. Hamlet has been walking around aimlessly in the palace for vs sparta up to four hours at a time. Polonius, in private, sends his servant Reynaldo to spy on Laertes. Polonius reminds him of how an were the three estates society effective spy asks open-ended questions and tells little suggestive lies. Athens Vs Sparta? Polonius likes to essay, spy. Ophelia comes in, obviously upset. She describes Hamlet's barging into her bedroom, with his doublet all unbraced (we'd say, his shirt open in front), his dirty socks crunched down, and pale and knock-kneed, as if he had been loosèd out of hell / to speak of horrors. Athens Vs Sparta? Or, as might say, as if he'd seen a ghost.

Hamlet grabbed her wrist, stared at essay on plagiarism, her face, sighed, let her go, and athens walked out the on plagiarism door backwards. What's happened? Hamlet, who has set about to feign mental illness, is actually just acting on athens, his own very genuine feelings. Hamlet cares very much about Ophelia. He must have hoped for a happy life with her.

Now it is painfully obvious that they are both prisoners of a system that will never allow them to yahoo, have the happiness that they should. Athens Vs Sparta? If you want to write a good essay, jot down in about 500 words what Hamlet was thinking while he was saying nothing. Here's where we really see him starting to be conflicted. Will he strike back, or just play along with Claudius and magnesium acid perhaps marry the woman he loves and be happy? What kind of a relationship can a man who's trying to be upright have in a bad world? Hamlet says everything and vs sparta says nothing, just as the skull will do later. When Hamlet acts like a flesh-and-blood human being showing authentic emotions, people like Polonius will say he is Gregory, by Panos Essay insane. And Polonius suggests Hamlet is lovesick. Maybe Polonius really believes this. Vs Sparta? Maybe he just realized that perhaps his daughter might be the yahoo directory uk next Queen of Denmark.

The king and queen welcome Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Claudius says that except for the death of vs sparta, Hamlet's father, he's clueless as to essay, why Hamlet is athens vs sparta upset. (Uh huh.) He asks them very nicely to try to figure out Essay Dream what's wrong so Claudius can help. (Now Claudius might well be sincere.) Gertrude says she wants them to make Hamlet happy, and vs sparta that the essay on plagiarism good and generous king will reward them well. Both say how much they appreciate the athens vs sparta opportunity, and Claudius thanks them. Often a director will have Claudius call each by the other's name, and Gertrude point out which is the three estates in french which (lines 33-34). They go off to find Hamlet. Polonius comes in and announces that the athens vs sparta ambassadors from magnesium acid, Norway have returned, and that after their report he will tell them why Hamlet is acting strange. Gertrude thinks that Hamlet is simply distressed over his father's death (which Claudius thought of) and her remarriage (which Claudius pretended he couldn't think of.) The ambassadors are back from athens vs sparta, Norway. Fortinbras was indeed mounting an army to attack Claudius's Denmark.

The King of Norway was sick and about Big; DREAM supposedly thought Fortinbras was going to invade Poland instead. (Uh huh.) When he learned the athens truth, the magnesium in hydrochloric King of Norway arrested Fortinbras, made him promise not to invade Denmark, and athens paid him to invade Poland instead. The King of Norway now requests that Claudius let Fortinbras pass through Denmark for the invasion. (Denmark is on the invasion route from Norway to Poland if the The History Violin Norwegian army is to cross the sea to Denmark. And we know a sea-invasion was expected from the amount of shipbuilding mentioned in vs sparta, I.i.) This all seems fake and for show, and Gregory, by Panos Ioannides Essay probably Claudius (who doesn't seem at all surprised) and the King of Norway had an understanding beforehand. As before, Polonius can be a foolish busybody or a sinister old man. (Foolish busybodies do not usually become chief advisors to warrior-kings.) Polonius launches into a verbose speech about finding the cause of madness, prompting the queen to tell him to get to athens vs sparta, the point (More matter with less art; the queen actually cares about Gregory, by Panos Essay Hamlet.) He reads a love letter from athens vs sparta, Hamlet. It's about the genuineness of his love. Directory Uk? Polonius asks the vs sparta king, What do you think of me? The king replies, [You are] a man faithful and honorable. Now Polonius tells a lie. He emphasizes that he had no knowledge of Hamlet's romantic interest in Ophelia until she told him and gave him the love letter. Polonius then truthfully tells how he forbade Ophelia to see or accept messages from Hamlet. By Panos Ioannides Essay? However, Polonius does not mention the wrist-grabbing episode.

He then reminds the king of how reliable an vs sparta advisor he has always been, and says Take this from this (my head off my shoulders, or my insignia of office from me; the actor will show which is meant) if this be otherwise. He finishes, If circumstances lead me [i.e., allow, the actor could say let], I will find / Where truth is essay on plagiarism hid, though it were hid indeed / Within the athens vs sparta center [of the earth]. By Panos Ioannides Essay? He suggests he and the king hide and watch Ophelia and Hamlet. Polonius likes to athens, spy. At this time, Hamlet (who may have been eavesdropping), walks in reading a book. Polonius questions him, and Hamlet pretends to be very crazy by giving silly answers. They are pointed, referring to the dishonesty of Polonius (To be honest, as this world goes, is to yahoo, be one man picked out of ten thousand.) Once again, simply being sincere and genuine looks to the courtiers like being crazy.

Hamlet is well-aware that Polonius has forbidden Ophelia to see him, and he refers obliquely to this. Vs Sparta? Polonius notes in an aside (a movie director would use a voice-over), Though this be madness, yet there is Gregory, Ioannides method in it -- another famous line often misquoted. The speech of the vs sparta insane, as Polonius notes, often makes the best sense. Why is Hamlet pretending to be comically-crazy? He said he would put an acid antic disposition on just after he saw the ghost. Athens Vs Sparta? You'll have to think hard about this, or suspend your judgement. Shakespeare was constrained by the original Hamlet story to essay, have Hamlet pretend to be comically insane, and for the king to try to athens, find whether he was really crazy or just faking. The Three In French Society? But Hamlet is also distraught, and the play is largely a study of his emotional turmoil while he is forced to athens vs sparta, endure a rotten environment. You might decide that Hamlet, knowing that his behavior is going to be abnormal because he is under stress, wants to mislead the court into thinking he is by Panos Ioannides simply nuts rather than bent on revenge. Athens? (Of course, this is completely unlike his motivation in the original story, where he pretends to be insane so that people will believe he poses no threat.) I've never been able to decide for myself.

Polonius leaves, and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern (who have been watching) enter. The History Of The Violin Essay? Hamlet realizes right away that they have been sent for. They share a dirty joke about Lady Luck's private parts that would have been very funny to Shakespeare's contemporaries, and Hamlet calls Denmark a prison. When they disagree (Humor a madman), Hamlet says There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so. To me it is a prison. Hamlet is making fun of how naive his fake friends are, and perhaps wishing he knew less than he did. (Note that Hamlet is obviously not referring to the idea that there are no moral standards common to the whole human race -- as do certain contemporary multiculturalists. The theme of right and wrong pervades the play.) The idea that attitude is everything was already familiar from Montaigne, and from common sense. Again we have the theme of the play -- Hamlet chooses NOT to athens vs sparta, ignore the evil around him, though everybody else has, or pretends to were the three in french society, have, a good attitude toward a terrible situation. The spies suggest Hamlet is simply too ambitious.

This is ironic, since they are the ones who are spying on athens, their friend for a king's money. Hamlet replies, O God, I could be bounded in a nutshell and count myself a king of infinite space, were it not that I have bad dreams. The friends continue to about DREAM, play on the idea that Hamlet's ambitious are being thwarted, sharing some contemporary platitudes about the athens vs sparta vanity of earthly ambitions. Essay DREAM? But it seems (from what will follow) that Hamlet's remembering the time when the vs sparta world seemed like a much happier place -- before he saw the wrongs as they are. The History Of The Violin? Hamlet then questions the vs sparta men again about the purpose of of the Violin, their visit. If they actually cared, they would say, Your family asked us to come. We are all very worried about vs sparta you. Instead, they pretend they just dropped by to visit, which is stupid. Only when Hamlet asks them by the rites of our fellowship (i.e., by our secret fraternity ritual) do they have to tell the yahoo uk truth. (In my own college fraternity, we have the vs sparta same understanding and a nearly-identical formula.) Hamlet levels with his friends. There was a time when the beauty of the earth, the magnesium in hydrochloric sky, and the thoughts and accomplishments of the vs sparta human race filled him with happiness. (All of magnesium in hydrochloric, this is good Renaissance thought, and familiar from many times and places -- and I hope you've felt this as well.) Now he has lost his ability to athens, derive enjoyment, though he knows the essay on plagiarism earth, sky, and people should still seem wonderful.

They seem instead to be the quintessence of dust. Athens? Anyone who's experienced depression knows the feeling. Quintessence (fifth essence; compare Bruce Willis's Fifth Element) was an idea from prescientific thought -- a mystical substance that made fire, air, water, and earth work together, and supposedly what the planets and yahoo stars were made of. The two friends then tell Hamlet that some traveling entertainers will be arriving that evening. They used to have their own theater, but some child-actors became more popular (a contemporary allusion by Shakespeare to the late summer of 1600), and the adult actors took to the road. Hamlet compares the public's changing tastes to the way people feel about vs sparta his uncle. Yahoo Uk? (Q2 omits the vs sparta reference to the child actors, but without it, the transition between the what the three in french society actor's losing popularity and the new king gaining popularity makes no sense, so it cannot be an athens vs sparta interpolation.) Hamlet quickly and obliquely tell his friends he is only faking (I am but mad north-north-west.

When the Ioannides wind is southerly, I know a hawk from a handsaw.) The players arrive, heralded by Polonius, who Hamlet calls a big baby. Hamlet fakes madness for Polonius's benefit. Athens Vs Sparta? He pretends he was talking about something else with his friends, refers obliquely to Ophelia, and gives a Bronx cheer (Buzz buzz). When the players arrive, Hamlet drops the pretense of madness, and greets old friends. One actor repeats a bombastic speech on the fall of Troy, overacting with tears in his eyes. Hamlet asks Polonius to treat the actors well. Polonius says he'll treat them as they deserve -- actors were considered undesirables.

Hamlet says, [Treat them] better. Use every man after his desert [i.e., deserving], and who shall [e]scape whipping? Hamlet gets an idea. He asks for a performance of The History Essay, The Murder of Gonzago, with a short speech by vs sparta, Hamlet himself added. (Don't try to yahoo directory, figure out what happened to this speech.) Everybody leaves. Hamlet soliloquizes. He calls himself a rogue and a peasant slave.

A rogue was a dishonest person; a peasant slave was an oppressed farm worker. He talks about how the vs sparta actor got himself all worked-up over something about which he really cared nothing (the fall of Troy). Hamlet contrasts this with his own passiveness in both word and deed. What does Hamlet really mean? He reminds us, at the end of the soliloquy, that even though he thinks the ghost is telling the truth, he needs to of the Violin, be sure this is not a demonic deception. In the meantime, though, he hates Claudius with a silent hatred that contrasts with the actor's fake show. Hamlet calls himself gutless (I am lily-livered and lack gall). Some commentators have taken Hamlet at his word, and thought he is obsessing and/or depressed, both of which interfere with action. Athens? But it seems to me that this is simply a human response to being unable to do anything -- we blame ourselves instead of circumstances. Especially, Hamlet is upset that he needs to make compromises with the world in The History, which he finds himself.

Perhaps this is confusing -- since Hamlet still doesn't know for sure that the athens vs sparta king is guilty. But it's true to the human experience, and the ideas that Shakespeare has been developing. I hope you'll think about this, and by Panos Ioannides decide for yourself. The next day, the two spies visit with the athens king and queen, as well as Polonius, who has brought Ophelia. Big; DREAM? They say what everybody knows -- Hamlet's crazy talk is crafty madness to hide a secret, and that he really is upset about something. They invite the vs sparta royal couple to the play, and the king seems genuinely glad that Hamlet's found something he will enjoy. The king sends the queen and the spies away. Polonius gives his daughter a book, plants her where Hamlet will find her, and what were the three estates in french tells her to pretend she is vs sparta reading. Polonius tells her (or to the king?), It's all right, dear, everybody pretends. (With devotion's visage / and pious action we do sugar o'er / the were in french devil himself.) The king sees the application to himself, and says, No kidding. (How smart a lash that speech doth give my conscience!) This is powerful -- we suddenly learn that the king feels horrible about his own crime.

Maybe this surprises us. If Polonius is a sinister old man and knows all about the vs sparta murder, the The History of the Violin Essay king says this directly to him as they are out of vs sparta, earshot of Ophelia. Were The Three In French Society? Polonius can grunt cynically in response -- there's nothing really to say in reply. If Polonius is a foolish old man, the athens king says this as an the three estates in french society aside. We have just learned that the king really does hate his crime, and suffers under a heavy burden. Hamlet's famous speech on whether it's worthwhile living or doing anything needs little comment. He says it seems to him that life is vs sparta not worth living, mostly because people treat each other so stupidly and badly. We also suffer from essay, disease and old age -- even living too long is athens a calamity. But Hamlet foregoes suicide because something after death might be as bad or worse, if we've taken our own lives or haven't lived.

He's saying what many people have felt, especially those who do not assume that the Christian account of the afterlife is true -- or even that there is any afterlife. Notice that Hamlet says that nobody's returned to tell of the afterlife -- the ghost notwithstanding. Shakespeare seems to be saying, loud and in hydrochloric clear, Don't focus on the story. Focus on the ideas. Some people have been puzzled by the lines Thus conscience does make cowards of us all; / And thus the native hue of resolution / Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought, / And enterprises of athens, great pitch and moment / With this regard their currents turn awry / And lose the name of action. Not only is Hamlet talking about in hydrochloric actual suicide -- he's also talking about lifelong suicide by doing nothing, choosing the vs sparta easy passive approach to life. Compare this to Hamlet's calling himself gutless merely because he can't kill the king until he has all the facts and a good opportunity. By Panos Essay? It's human nature to feel cowardly and ineffective when you're unable (or too smart) to take decisive (or rash) action. Hamlet sees Ophelia, reading a book.

He assumes it's her prayer book (she is evidently not much of a pleasure reader), and asks her to athens vs sparta, pray for the forgiveness of his sins. Yahoo Directory Uk? Instead, she tries to give him back his love letters, saying he has prove[d] unkind, which is ridiculous. Athens? Hamlet immediately realizes that she has been put up to this. On Plagiarism? He responds like a thoughtful man of strong feelings. He generalizes his disappointment with the athens vs sparta two women in his life to all women -- I think unfairly. (Watch how his attitude toward women matures later in the play.) But the yahoo uk Olivier movie's torrent of loud verbal abuse seems wrong. Showing Hamlet's emotional turmoil and conflict seems better.

Rather, Hamlet sees Ophelia being corrupted by the world with which he feels he has already had to compromise. He doesn't want this to happen to the girl about whom he cares so much. Athens? Like most men during breaking up, he says I loved you and I didn't love you. More meaningfully, Hamlet talks about fakeness. He asks where her father is, and must know that she is lying. Yahoo Directory? (In Ethan Hawke's version, he finds a wire microphone hidden on Ophelia.) He wants Ophelia to remain good, even as he sees himself becoming compromised.

She would have an athens opportunity to renounce the world by joining a convent, and he urges her to do so. (Decide for yourself about magnesium in hydrochloric anything anybody may tell you about nunnery being Hamlet's double-meaning for whorehouse. I can't make sense out of athens vs sparta, this in Big; Act, the present context.) In our world, even being beautiful drives people to be dishonest. Disgusted with the world, Hamlet suggests that there be no more marriages -- suicide for the human race. Ophelia thinks Hamlet, who she admired so much, is crazy. (Once again, being genuine looks like insanity.) But the athens vs sparta king comes out and says that he thinks that Hamlet is neither in love, nor insane, but very upset about something. Polonius decides he'll get Hamlet to talk to his mother next, while Polonius eavesdrops again. Polonius likes to spy. The king decides that he will send Hamlet to England for the demand of our neglected tribute (i.e., to ask for protection money.)

Hamlet gives an DREAM acting lesson, mostly about athens vs sparta being genuine. He wants to show people -- body and mind -- as they are. So does Shakespeare. He talks with Horatio, and we learn that Horatio is The History Violin a poor boy who's had bad luck but who doesn't complain. He and athens vs sparta Hamlet are genuine friends who know they can trust each other. (A stoical, kindly friend like Horatio is a good choice for the Hamlet who we first meet. After all, he's considering suicide -- a posture that he will outgrow as the essay play goes on.) Hamlet says, Give me that man / That is not passion's slave, and athens vs sparta I will wear him / In my heart's core, ay, in yahoo, my heart of heart, / As I do thee. Our society doesn't talk as much about male bonding as Shakespeare's did. Around 1600, guys -- including Shakespeare -- commonly wrote poems for each other, and nobody thought this was weird.

Hamlet tells Horatio to watch the king as the players re-enact the murder of Old Hamlet. Hamlet jokes -- first bawdily, then about vs sparta how his mother looks cheerful despite his father having died only two hours ago. (Ophelia, who is literal-minded and thinks he is crazy, corrects him.) The play begins with a dumb show, in Essay Big; Act, which the story is pantomimed. The king and the queen profess love, the king falls asleep, and the villain pours poison in the king's ear and seduces the queen. Athens? If Polonius is what estates in french society a sinister old man and Claudius's accomplice, he can glance at the king when the athens poison is poured in the ear. If Gertrude knows the of the Violin details of the homicide (the director can decide), she can glance at the king when the athens vs sparta poison is poured in the ear, or be outraged herself. Many directors will choose to essay, omit everything after the poison is poured in the dumb show, and have the King get upset and run out right now. Otherwise, the play proceeds, while Hamlet cracks dirty jokes and vs sparta the king mentions that the story is offensive. Courtiers who are suspicious or in-the-know can shoot glances at the king during the production.

When the villain pours the poison in the victim's ear, and The History Essay Hamlet shouts You will see [next] how the murderer gets the vs sparta love of [the murdered man]'s wife, the king stands up, shouts Give me some light! Away!, Polonius calls for by Panos torches (Somebody get the lights. Athens? ), and everybody runs out. It seems to me that the entire Danish court realizes (or will soon realize) that Old Hamlet was murdered by Claudius, and that Hamlet knows too. (Hamlet is by Panos Essay about to break through his own mother's denial.) Hamlet and Horatio congratulate each other. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern come back in looking for vs sparta Hamlet, telling him the king is were estates in french very angry (duh) and that his mother wants to see him (king's orders). Hamlet gives them goofy answers, intending to insult them rather than deceive them. Guildenstern asks for straight answers. Rosencrantz says, My lord, you once did love me, and asks why Hamlet is upset. Hamlet's response is to tell his friends to play the recorders that the actors brought. Neither knows how. Hamlet says they should be able to, since it is as easy as lying. When they still refuse, Hamlet tells them that they can't play him like they would an instrument.

Once again, Hamlet's genuineness looks like madness. Athens Vs Sparta? Polonius comes in, and Hamlet, still talking crazy, gets Polonius to agree that a particular cloud looks like each of three different animals. (Appearance versus reality.) In an aside, he says to the audience that this is as good a job of Gregory, by Panos Ioannides Essay, acting crazy as he can manage. Alone on stage, Hamlet says, Now could I drink hot blood / And do such bitter business as the day / Would quake to vs sparta, look on. (Unfortunately for everyone, he is about to do just that, by essay on plagiarism, stabbing Polonius.) He says that he'll keep his temper and not hurt his mother physically. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are back with the king, who says Hamlet is dangerous and that he will send him with them to England with a commission. The two spies talk in Elizabethan platitudes about the sacredness of kingship, the importance of stability in a monarchy, being holy and religious, and so forth. Athens Vs Sparta? (Uh huh, uh huh.) The spies leave. Polonius enters and yahoo uk tells Claudius he is going to hide in the bedroom. Vs Sparta? Claudius thanks him.

Now Claudius is by himself. Gregory, By Panos Ioannides? The play has really affected him. Vs Sparta? He tries to pray. We get to listen. If this were a contemporary action movie (today's revenge plays), we would simply hate the bad guy and wait for him to get his just deserts in the end. Shakespeare probably inherited this scene from his source, but he's done something special and unexpected. By giving Claudius real substance and depth, Shakespeare has at once imitated life, increased Hamlet's own stature by giving him an enemy with real character, and reinforced the theme of appearance against reality.

Hamlet wants to take decisive action, but can't. It turns out that Claudius cannot, either. And it's Claudius -- not Hamlet -- who is prevented from acting by his own inner turmoil. He hates his crime. He wants to repent. He realizes he could come clean, confess all, and part with his crown. and his queen. He realizes that until he is willing to do this, he cannot find forgiveness from God. But he is afraid of the afterlife (where, unlike this world, money cannot defeat justice).

And he is disgusted by the murder itself. Claudius is trying hard, and calls on God's angels to help him get up the were the three estates courage simply to pray for vs sparta God's grace. Hamlet enters, sees the Ioannides Essay king unguarded. Perhaps following the plot of the old play, Hamlet spares him, since if he's killed during prayer his soul might end up going to heaven. Athens Vs Sparta? The actor can say, And so he goes to h. [long pause, he meant to say hell], uh, heaven. Somebody will ask you to The History Violin Essay, say that Hamlet is a very bad person for wanting to wait for his revenge until the king is more likely to end up going to hell. Athens Vs Sparta? It seems to me that this scene probably was known from the older Hamlet play. Whatever you make of it, the King's speech is among my favorites. Shakespeare has added a special irony that's apparent in Claudius's words -- he was not even able to pray, only struggling.

Polonius hides behind a curtain (arras) in the bedroom. Hamlet comes in. The queen yells at him. He yells back. Hamlet accuses her of killing his father (i.e., complicity, perhaps just not thinking about what she should realize her first husband was murdered). Of course, there is no evidence she actually knows. (In the quarto version, she says she has no knowledge of the murder.) Gertrude seems puzzled. Essay On Plagiarism? Notice that Hamlet doesn't even mention that he is watching his mother in athens, the Mousetrap scene; of essay on plagiarism, course, she would pass the test.

Gertrude gets frightened and yells Help! Polonius behind the curtain yells Help! In the athens stress of the moment, Hamlet stabs him to death through the essay on plagiarism curtain. (As a pathologist who's seen plenty of real-life murder, this fits perfectly with the most common scenario. Someone who is already very upset feels their basic dignity and personal space has been violated. And Polonius has done this to Hamlet.) Trying to avenge a murder and vs sparta set things to right, Hamlet has just committed another murder -- this one senseless. But Hamlet is on plagiarism so focused on his mother that he does not even pause to vs sparta, see who he has killed before he accuses his mother of complicity in the murder of his father. Essay On Plagiarism? (Hamlet doesn't know for sure.) When Polonius's body falls out from behind the curtain, Hamlet remarks he thought it was the king (who he was just with, someplace else), and talks about how being a busybody is dangerous. Athens? He turns immediately back to his mother, who is baffled and evidently is just now realizing herself that Claudius is a murderer. (In the quarto version, the queen says something to the effect that she has just now learned of essay, Claudius's guilt. Perhaps some of the original text of the play has been lost from the folio version.)

Hamlet's speech to his mother has less to do with the murder and how it is wrong than with her sexual misbehavior and her not mourning her loving first husband. Many of us today will see this as a sexual double-standard from Shakespeare's own time. Maybe this is true; in any case, I'm old enough to remember the double standard and how wrong it was. Instead, focus on the queen's adultery and athens vs sparta ingratitude, wrongs against her former husband. The ghost enters, visible to Hamlet but not to the queen.

Elizabethans believed ghosts might be visible to one person but not to another. Perhaps the queen is essay too morally debased to see the ghost, or perhaps Shakespeare didn't want to clutter his story by having the ghost and the queen have it out vs sparta between themselves. As Hamlet says he expects, the ghost is there to reinforce how important it is that Hamlet take revenge. But the ghost also asks Hamlet to step between [the queen] and her fighting soul, and help her in this moment of what the three estates in french society, crisis to make the right choice. The queen thinks Hamlet is crazy. The ghost leaves. Hamlet tells the queen not to dismiss what he has said about her as the result of madness, and says how ironic it is that virtue (his blunt talk to his mother) has to ask pardon for its bad manners.

Hamlet tells his mother to confess herself to athens vs sparta, heaven and to repent, and not to have sex with the king. Assume a virtue if you have it not is good advice -- as we'd say today, Fake it 'till you make it, or To be brave, act brave. Society? Carrying out Polonius's body (as in the sources), Hamlet remarks that he's become heaven's scourge and minister against athens, a corrupt world. Of The? He also says it has pleased heaven (God) -- in his killing of the old man -- to punish Polonius for vs sparta his mean-minded, foolish spying, and to punish Hamlet, who will have to magnesium in hydrochloric, take the consequences of athens, his nasty-and-stupid act. He tells the queen not to reveal that he's feigning madness. Were Estates Society? He also indicates that he already knows the spies are going to do him mischief on vs sparta, the English trip, and that he has a counter-plan that will destroy them.

Exiting, he remarks that for once, Polonius doesn't have anything to say. We never do figure out why Gertrude cannot see the The History of the Violin Essay ghost (if there is a reason). Nor does the vs sparta scene focus on her realizing that the what the three in french society king is a murderer. Probably Hamlet couldn't persuade her since he still doesn't have the evidence; she'll only realize this at the climax when she drinks the poison. Hamlet talks to her, as he does to others (Ophelia, the spies, Horatio) about athens vs sparta not being sullied by a crooked, corrupt world. What The Three In French? Gertrude has not shown any signs of guilt beforehand, but afterwards, especially in the scenes with Ophelia, she will speak of her guilty conscience.

Now that Hamlet has killed Polonius, he has become himself a murderer and the object of Laertes's just quest for vs sparta revenge. No reasonable person would consider Hamlet either as culpable as Claudius, or excuse him entirely. (A jury today might be understanding, and even a prosecutor might say, Justifiable homicide.) Just recently, we heard Hamlet talk about essay his own patient merit. Now Hamlet is all-too-human. Athens? But there's something else. In this scene, Hamlet and his mother reaffirm their love for one another. From now on, Hamlet will no longer talk about life not being worth living. Perhaps this is the real turning-point of the play. The queen tells the king what has happened to Polonius, and magnesium acid that Hamlet is insane. The king says he will need to athens vs sparta, send Hamlet off immediately, make some kind of excuse for him, and think how to protect the king's own good name (uh huh). Magnesium In Hydrochloric? Line 40 is defective. It should conclude with something about slander.

Hamlet has hidden Polonius's body, and when the spies question him, he talks crazy-crafty but says clearly that he knows they are working for the king and against him. He warns them that this is dangerous. By now the two spies do not even pretend they care about Hamlet. The king and athens vs sparta two or three of his courtiers enter. The king says he cannot arrest Hamlet for Essay about Dream Big; DREAM fear of riots, but that the public would accept sending him away. The two spies bring Hamlet in. He talks crazy, commenting that everybody ends up dead in the end -- fat kings and athens vs sparta lean beggars end up both food for Dream Big; DREAM worms, simply different menu items.

The king tells Hamlet he just go to England, and gives sealed letters to the two spies. He tells them, Everything is sealed and vs sparta done. It sounds as if the spies know the contents of the letters; a director who wishes to make this clear can have the king show the letters to the spies first. The spies leave with Hamlet. Directory Uk? The king, alone, tells the audience that the letters instruct the King of vs sparta, England to kill Hamlet upon his arrival. Fortinbras's army crosses the stage, and Fortinbras drops a captain off to visit the magnesium in hydrochloric Danish court.

The captain meets Hamlet, Rosencrantz, and athens Guildenstern. Essay On Plagiarism? Hamlet asks about the army, and the captain says that Norway and Poland are fighting a stupid war over a worthless piece of land. Two thousand people are going to get killed over this nonsense. Hamlet says this is the result of rich people not having enough to athens, do, a hidden evil like a deep abscess rupturing into the blood. Directory Uk? Alone on athens vs sparta, stage, Hamlet contrasts himself to The History of the Essay, Fortinbras. Hamlet has something worth doing that he hasn't yet done. Fortinbras is busy doing something that isn't worthwhile. Hamlet reaffirms his bloody intentions. You may be asked to comment on this passage. You'll need to decide for yourself exactly what it means. If you've made it this far, you're up to the challenge.

A courtier tells the queen and Horatio that Ophelia is semi-coherent, talking about her dead father and that the world is full of deceptions (There's tricks in the world!) The queen does not want to vs sparta, talk to her; in magnesium acid, an aside, she says it will trouble and expose her own guilty conscience. Vs Sparta? Since the yahoo uk scene in her bedroom, the queen has felt guilty. She speaks of her own sick soul and vs sparta of sin's true nature; she also worries if she can keep her own composure with her own bad conscinece (So full of artless jealousy is guilt, it spills itself in fearing to be spilt.) Horatio suggests that the the three estates in french society queen should see Ophelia just for athens vs sparta political reasons. Ophelia comes in, singing a song about a dead man, then one about Dream Big; DREAM premarital sex. When she leaves, the king talks to athens, the queen about Essay about Act all the wrong things that have happened -- Polonius killed and quietly buried without a state funeral, Hamlet sent (just[ly]) away, the people confused and upset, and Laertes on his way back, angry. (The king is, as usual, a hypocrite; everybody knows how the trouble really started.) Just then, Laertes (at the athens head of a mob) breaks down the castle door. The mob wants Claudius deposed and Laertes crowned king. Laertes runs in, armed, and faces off with Claudius. He is doing exactly what Hamlet considered doing, and didn't do. Gertrude risks her own life by wrestling Laertes down.

Claudius tells her to let him go, because God protects kings (uh huh). Laertes yells, and Claudius asks for a chance to on plagiarism, explain. Crazy Ophelia comes in, preposterously arrayed with wild flowers, and making half-sense. Laertes notes that her madness talks more clearly than ordinary words (This nothing's more than matter.) She sings another song about a dead man, and vs sparta passes out symbolic flowers. You can have fun trying to figure out who gets the rosemary (remembrance, thinking of you -- weddings and funerals), who gets the pansies (thoughts, a pun on pensées), who gets the fennel (flattery / infidelity) and columbines (unchastity), who (with Ophelia) gets the rue (repentance / sorrow; probably Gertrude gets it, as she must wear her rue with a difference as to distinguish two coats of arms, since they have different reasons to be sorry), and who gets the daisies (unrequited love; you know the game with the daisy, She loves me, she loves me not). Ophelia regrets there have been no violets (faithfulness and friendship) available since her father died. Later, Laertes will ask violets to grow from Ophelia's body. Horatio gets a letter from Hamlet. Supposedly he boarded a pirate ship during a sea scuffle.

The pirates are bringing him back home, knowing they'll get some kind of favor in the future. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are on their way to England and Hamlet will have more to say about DREAM Act them. The king explains to Laertes that he couldn't arrest or prosecute Hamlet because the queen loves him and vs sparta he's popular with the common people. He's about to tell Laertes that his revenge is what the three in french society imminent (Don't lose any sleep over athens vs sparta, that -- l. Essay On Plagiarism? 31), though he probably plans to tell Laertes the details only after Hamlet is killed in England. Just then a letter comes from Hamlet announcing he's back in Denmark.

The king already has Plan B. The king says it's such a good plan that even his mother won't be suspicious. (Uh huh. The plot that Shakespeare inherited has some credibility problems, and Shakespeare does not seem to athens, care.) He will have Laertes have a fencing match with Hamlet. Laertes will accidentally choose a weapon that is actually sharp, with which he'll kill Hamlet. (Hamlet is most generous, And free from all contriving, so he won't check the swords.) Laertes mentions that he has some blade poison. He must have bought it to use on what were, Claudius (who he thinks is the murderer of Polonius). Even a scratch will kill. (Uh huh, nobody will be suspicious?) Now the king decides that for backup (in case Laertes is unable to stab Hamlet and make it look like an accident), he will have a poisoned drink ready, and Hamlet will want some when he's thirsty. Vs Sparta? (Uh huh, nobody will be suspicious?) Before you decide that you cannot suspend your disbelief, think about what's really going on. The king knows that the court knows that he's already a murderer, and that they don't care. So nobody will do anything even when the magnesium in hydrochloric king and Laertes kill Hamlet treacherously in plain view. The queen comes in, crying. Ophelia was hanging chains of flowers on trees. She climbed a willow that hung out over a river.

She fell into the river, simply continued singing, and athens vs sparta drowned when her clothes waterlogged. Please note that this is what estates society obviously an athens accident, not a suicide -- just as when a crazy person walks in front of a bus nowadays. I think Claudius gives it out as a suicide just to inflame Laertes. We don't know who saw Ophelia drown, or why nobody tried to save her. Perhaps an observer from the castle battlements, or perhaps her last acts were reconstructed from the scene, or perhaps we are asking the wrong question. Two men are digging Ophelia's grave. One asks whether someone who tries to go to heaven by the short route (suicide) can be given Christian burial.

In Shakespeare's time (as Hamlet already mentioned in I.ii.), suicide was considered a sin, and sometimes even unforgivable. Suicides would ordinarily be buried in unconsecrated ground without a Christian service. Sometimes they'd be buried at a crossroads (as a warning to everybody not to yahoo directory uk, do the same), and sometimes with a stake through the vs sparta heart (to prevent them from rising as undead, of course.) The men joke about in hydrochloric acid how politics has influenced the coroner's decision to allow Christian burial. They parody lawyer talk (Maybe the water jumped on her, instead of her jumping into the water.

Or maybe she drowned herself in her own defense.) They say what a shame it is vs sparta that, in yahoo uk, our corrupt world, rich people have more of a right to vs sparta, commit suicide than do poor people. Hamlet and Horatio walk in. The gravedigger sings a contemporary song about having been in estates in french society, love and making love, and thinking it was great, but now being dead and in a grave as if he'd never lived at all. The marks -a- signify his grunting as he shovels. He tosses up a skull. Hamlet (incognito) asks who is to be buried, the men exchange wisecracks about death and Hamlet's insanity.

The gravedigger says he has been working at this trade since the vs sparta very day that Hamlet was born. (Thus the on plagiarism gravedigger comes to stand for Hamlet's own mortality.) Hamlet asks about dead bodies, makes a four-way pun on the word fine, and jokes about chop-fallen (in the living it means frowning, but the skull has lost its chop, i.e., jawbone.) Loggits is the game we call horseshoes. Let her paint an inch thick is athens a reference to essay, the new fashion of women wearing make-up. Even the jester couldn't make someone laugh about the fact that -- makeup or no -- death and its ugliness are inevitable. The gravedigger tells him which skull belonged to the court jester, Yorick. Hamlet also remembers Yorick's jokes and his kindness.

But there is more. In the medieval and renaissance world, it was the special privilege of the court jester to tell the truth. Athens? He could do this without fear of reprisals. Dream Act? In Shakespeare's plays (notably Twelfth Night, As You Like It, and vs sparta King Lear), the jester's role as truth-teller is central. Hamlet has dealt with the themes of honesty, dishonesty, and Gregory, truth-telling. In this most famous scene of athens vs sparta, all, Yorick tells the truth without saying a word. We all end up in the same place, dead. The funeral party comes in, and Hamlet recognizes maimed rites, i.e., much of the era's normal Christian burial service is eliminated because of the suspicion of suicide. Hamlet and Horatio hide. Laertes protests the fact that the service is limited.

The pastor's reply is organized religion at its worst. Laertes says the priest is the one who will go to hell. He jumps into Dream Big; DREAM, the grave, picks up the vs sparta corpse and embraces it, and launches into what were estates, a bombastic speech. Hamlet comes out and jumps into the grave too. He calls himself Hamlet the Dane, claiming the royal title. (In Shakespeare's era, a monarch was called by the name of his country for short.) Shakespeare's heroes all develop as people, and many people (myself included) dislike Hamlet's attitude toward women as evidenced in the first half of the athens play. What Were The Three In French? But in striking contrast to the nunnery scene, he now proclaims boldly, I loved Ophelia. Laertes drops the corpse and athens starts choking Hamlet.

Separated, Hamlet parodies Laertes's bombastic speech. Essay Dream DREAM Act? Horatio takes Hamlet off and the king says to Laertes, Good. Now we have an athens excuse for a duel right away. Hamlet is explaining to Horatio about how he substituted his own letter to the King of magnesium in hydrochloric, England, ordering the execution of the spies. (He used flowerly language, though he hated doing it -- he even mentions that he was trained to write like that, and worked hard to forget how. Again, this is the theme of sincerity.) Hamlet already had a pretty good idea of athens, what the English trip was all about, so his having a copy of the royal seal, and Gregory, Ioannides Essay some wax and paper, is no surprise (as he already indicated at athens, the end of the bedroom scene.) Surprisingly, Hamlet talks about reading and changing the yahoo directory uk letters on an impulse, and has a famous line, There's a divinity that shapes our ends / Rough-hew them how we will. Rough-hew was to carve the basics of a woodcarving or sculpture, with the athens vs sparta fine-shaping to follow. Horatio (who seems more inclined to by Panos Essay, faith in God than do the other characters) agrees: That is most certain. Since this doesn't make perfect sense with the plot, Shakespeare probably placed it here for philosophic reasons, especially given what is athens about to happen -- coincidences (Providence?) are going to work events out for Hamlet's cause. There seems to be some mysterious design behind life that makes things work out and gives life its meaning. Unfortunately for Hamlet and other decent people, it doesn't always bring about altogether happy endings.

Still, it's grand being part of things. One can find similar ideas in Montaigne, Proverbs 16:9, and the modern Christian saying, A person proposes, God disposes. Bring your own life experience -- do you know of anyone who had been considering suicide who was comforted and perhaps dissuaded by the notion that somehow the yahoo universe (if not a personal God) would somehow work everything out? Do you think this is true? I can't answer. Horatio remarks that it'll only be a short time before the king finds out about the execution of the spies.

Hamlet says life itself is vs sparta short (The interim is mine, / And a man's life's no more than to what were the three in french, say 'One'.) Osric brings Laertes's challenge, Hamlet accepts. The king has bet heavily on Hamlet, probably to vs sparta, divert suspicion. Don't try to essay, figure out the terms of the bet -- the two accounts contradict each other. Athens? Hamlet admits foreboding to Horatio, and both suspect foul play is imminent. But Hamlet decides to go forward anyway. We defy augury -- Hamlet is not going to let his apprehensions interfere with his showing courage and doing what he must.

There is special providence in the fall of a sparrow. This is an on plagiarism allusion to the gospel. God knows every sparrow that falls. Mark Twain (The Mysterious Stranger) pointed out that the sparrow still falls. Hamlet is about to die, too, although God is watching. Hamlet notes that death is going to come, sooner or later.

The readiness is vs sparta all -- being ready to live and die with courage and integrity is on plagiarism all the answer that Hamlet will find for death. Hamlet points out that nobody really knows what death is, so why be afraid to die young? Let be -- don't fight it. Is Let be the answer to To be or not to be? (!). The duel is set up. In Q1 and vs sparta Q2, they bring foils (long slender swords) and daggers; in yahoo directory uk, Q2 and F foils and athens vs sparta gauntlets (metal gloves). Hamlet puns on foil, a metal backing that made gemstones shine brighter; he will make Laertes look even more the champion fencer. Gregory, By Panos Ioannides? (Thanks to Hamlet, foil has come to vs sparta, mean any character who contrasts with the hero, showing up what kind of person the hero is.) Hamlet apologizes to Laertes, and blames his distracted mental state -- he wasn't himself. (There is a parallel in Romans 7-8). As the king expected, Hamlet is not at all suspicious about the Essay Dream Big; swords, and vs sparta merely asks whether they're all the essay same length.

In the first round, Hamlet tags Laertes (who is thinking about the poison and perhaps doesn't have his heart really in it). The king drops the poison in the cup, pretending he thinks it's a pearl. (Okay, this is silly.) Whether the court thinks the pearl is to be dissolved in acidified wine and drunk (occasionally done as conspicuous-consumption), or is a gift to Hamlet, you'll need to vs sparta, decide for yourself. The king probably takes a drink (from another cup, or he drinks before the poison is dissolved, or he just pretends to The History Essay, drink.) The queen mentions that Hamlet is fat and athens vs sparta out of breath. Fat just means sweating, so she wipes his forehead. In the second round, Hamlet hits Laertes again. The queen grabs the cup and drinks despite the king's warning. We'll never know whether she has just realized what is going on, and wants to magnesium in hydrochloric acid, save Hamlet's life and athens maybe end her own miserable existence. The History Of The? (She does realize quickly that the cup is poisoned. People who are really poisoned without their knowledge just think they are suddenly sick.) Laertes says in an aside that he's having moral qualms about killing Hamlet by treachery. The third round ends in athens vs sparta, a draw (perhaps locked weapons), then Laertes reaches out and scratches Hamlet illegally when he is not looking. (When Laertes begins a round, he says Come; when he says Have at you now, it signals something illegal.) They scuffle (because of the illegal blow, Hamlet is incensed).

During the scuffle, they exchange swords. This was a recognized move in fencing. One fencer would grab the other's hand with his free hand (usually with a metal glove) or strike it with his dagger. The right response was for the other fencer to do the Gregory, Ioannides same, and swords could then be exchanged. On stage, the exchange is usually done by having Hamlet disarm Laertes with his sword, which flies up. Hamlet puts his foot on athens, the sharp poisoned sword (he knows it's sharp, but not that it's poisoned, and he intended to on plagiarism, scratch Laertes back). Vs Sparta? Hamlet gives his own sword to of the Violin, Laertes, fights again, and inflicts a deeper wound on him, explaining why Laertes dies quicker.

The queen announces the athens drink is poisoned, and drops dead. Laertes tells everything, and shouts The king's to blame! For the first time, Hamlet can kill the king and Big; have people realize he was right. Hamlet stabs the king with the poisoned blade, then forces the poisoned beverage down his throat. Vs Sparta? Elizabethans pretended to believe that kings were sacred, so Shakespeare had to have everybody shout Treason, but nobody does anything. (If the director wishes, the guards and court can draw their own weapons and surround the king. Horatio can show the letters to England at this time, too.) Hamlet says he is dying, and Horatio offers to Gregory, by Panos Ioannides, commit suicide like a Roman soldier when his side was defeated. Hamlet drinks the poison instead, to ensure Horatio won't.

If Hamlet saw no reason to live, then Horatio has one -- to tell the vs sparta truth about by Panos Hamlet. In the final scene, Fortinbras happens by, as do the English with word of the spies' execution. In the last irony, Fortinbras has gotten his land back, and his own father's death avenged. Vs Sparta? Horatio says he'll tell about accidental judgments, i.e., people have gotten their just deserts through seeming accidents -- the essay theme of God working in the world to make things right. Fortinbras calls for military honors to be shown Hamlet's body. Some people will see this recovery of ceremonial to mean things are right with the athens world again. Others will simply see one more example of power passing in yahoo directory, an unfair world -- as it was in the real Dark Ages. Vs Sparta? In Ingmar Bergman's production of Hamlet, Fortinbras's words, Bid the Essay about Big; DREAM Act soldiers shoot! is their signal to pull out their guns and slaughter Horatio and the rest of the vs sparta surviving Danish court. Shakespeare's Hamlet was a remake of an already popular play, based in turn on Essay about Dream, historical fiction, based in turn on an episode from the Dark Ages, the lawless, might-makes-right era that followed the collapse of Roman-era civilization.

The Historical Hamlet was the son of vs sparta, a Danish King of the Jutes, who lived during the Dark Ages. The warlord was assassinated and his crown usurped by his brother. This was a coup, not a secret murder. According to The History of the Essay, current superstition, anyone who killed a crazy person risked acquiring the same disease from the victim's spirit. Therefore, the murdered warlord's son pretended to be crazy, acquiring the athens nickname Amlothi, crazy person. Eventually he killed his uncle and became King of the Jutes in acid, turn. He ruled successfully, and the nickname stuck. The Geneologies [my link is now down] record Amleth, King of athens, Denmark. The History Of The? They show that he married a Scottish princess named Herminthrud (Hermutrude). He was eventually killed in battle. He is buried in Denmark in a field called Ammelhede (Hamlet's Heath) to this day.

In a strange twist of fate, Herminthrud married one Viglek, also King of Denmark, the athens man whose army defeated and killed Hamlet. Michael Skovmand, Dept. of English at U. of Aarhus, Denmark, shared this with me: There is magnesium in hydrochloric a Frisian runic inscription from about 700 AD to athens, the effect that On a cliff Amleth put up resistance (translated from Gregory, by Panos Ioannides Essay, Danish: På en klint satte Amled sig til værge). Athens Vs Sparta? There is a consensus that Amleth was a local prince in essay, Jutland in vs sparta, the 7th century. But there is more, albeit circumstantial evidence which points to a pre-Saxo Amleth.

A report from a vicar north of Aarhus in Jutland from 1623 describes a locality called Ammelhede where according to local legend Amled lies buried. The details of this report shows how Amled existed in popular memory, independent of directory, Saxo which at that time had only existed in Danish a hundred years and had practically no readership beyond the clergy and a few academics. Ammelhede exists to this very day, and in 1933 the local tourist board put up a stone with this memorial inscription: Amled ypperste / Oldtids-snille / teed sig tåbe / Til Hvnens time / Kaaret paa ting / Af jyder til konge/ H jsat han hviler / Paa Ammel Hede ( = Amled the greatest / Craftiest of Old / Acted a fool / Until the hour of revenge / Elected at the Ting / by vs sparta, Jutes to be king / raised high he rests / at Ammel Heath [my translation]) So next time you visit Denmark, stop by Ammelhede, a few miles to of the, the south-east of vs sparta, Randers -- don't even think about visiting the bogus 'Hamlet's Grave' between Elsinore and Copenhagen! In Saxo, Hamlet pretends to yahoo directory uk, think that the beach sand is ground grain. This is ancient, being repeated explicitly in an old Norse saga (the Prose Edda) that refers to the ocean-wave nymphs who ground Hamlet's grain. (Kennings sometimes alluded to other stories that the audience would know.) The ancient Roman, Lucius Junius Brutus, also feigned insanity while awaiting his revenge. This gave the family its name (brute = unthinking animal), and it was passed along to the Brutus who killed Caesar. David (I Samuel) also once feigned madness to deceive Saul. In our era, organized crime leader Vincente Gigante is said to athens, have feigned madness.

There is a historical novel, now hard to Dream DREAM Act, find, about the athens historical Hamlet entitled The War of Jutish Succession. Royal Deceit is a B-movie, not released in theaters, adapted from Saxo. I'd appreciate knowing of any good links. Amled -- Viking Theater play based on Saxo. The History Of The Essay? Link is now down.

Prince of Jutland -- Danish movie based on Saxo. Christian Bale is Hamlet. Saxo Grammaticus Historia Danica , written around 1200, presents a highly-fictionalized (actually silly) version of the story. Horwendil, warlord of Jutland, kills the King of Norway in athens vs sparta, single combat and is given Gurutha, daughter of the Essay about Dream Big; King of vs sparta, Denmark. Their son is Amleth. Horwendil's jealous brother Feng murders Horwendil and marries Gurutha. The murder is no secret. (The historical Macbeth killed an enemy in The History of the Violin, public, and promptly married his victim's wife, who became Lady Macbeth.) Gurutha is happy enough, especially when Feng claims he killed Horwendil to protect Gurutha from impending mistreatment. Amleth pretends to be crazy. Feng tries to find out whether he is really crazy, or just pretending. First, Feng puts an attractive woman in the woods where Hamlet will find her, and observes secretly.

Amleth is warned of the plot, and athens takes the woman off for Dream Act a private date. They have a great time, having been childhood friends, and she tells Amleth everything. Next, Feng hides a courtier under some straw to athens, eavesdrop on Amleth's conversations with his mother. Amleth suspects a trap, pretends to think he is a chicken, jumps around on the straw, stabs the eavesdroper to death through the straw, cuts the Dream DREAM Act body up, and tosses it into the sewer where it is eaten by the pigs. Amleth has a long speech in which he calls his mother a whore and makes her sorry. She agrees to help him. She begins weaving a net to vs sparta, entrap Feng's courtiers. Feng sends Amleth to King of Britain with two courtiers who carry sealed letters asking the King of Britain to on plagiarism, execute Amleth. Athens Vs Sparta? Amleth finds these and substitutes different letters asking for the execution of the courtiers and that Amleth be given the King of Britain's daughter in marriage. Directory? Again, this all works out for Amleth. At the British court, Amleth demonstrates his abilities at psychic divination.

Amleth returns a year later. He arrives at Feng's court, where he again pretends to be insane. He plays with his sword and cuts himself, and the guests nail his sword to its scabbard. Vs Sparta? Amleth plays host, gets everybody drunk, flings a net woven by his mother over the drunken courtiers, and burns the king's house. Feng is asleep nearby. Amleth goes into Feng's bedroom, exchanges swords with the sleeping Feng, then awakes him and about Dream Big; DREAM challenges him to single combat. Feng now has the sword that is nailed to the scabbard, and Amleth kills him. Amleth goes on to become a successful Viking looter and warlord, finally dying in battle. Saxo confirms that Amleth's Scottish wife betrayed him and married Wiglek (Viglek), the man who had killed him in athens vs sparta, battle. Belleforest's Histories Tragiques was a book of stories in French from 1576. Belleforest adapted Saxo's historical fiction.

The queen committed adultery before the murder of what were society, Hamlet's father. Hamlet is melancholy and brooding. There is a lot of dialogue. Hamlet's very long speech in his mother's bedroom is athens closely followed by Shakespeare. There was an English translation in 1608, The History of essay on plagiarism, Hamblet (sic.) ; it borrows Shakespeare's A rat! A rat!, and athens specifically makes the covering through which the spy is The History Violin stabbed into a wall hanging. My link to Belleforest in translation is now down. Please let me know if this ever reappears online. The Spanish Tragedy was a revenge play by Thomas Kyd with several similarities to Shakespeare's Hamlet. It may be a companion-piece to the original Hamlet play, that Kyd probably also wrote.

The background is one of international political intrigue. A ghost reveals a secret murder (but to the audience, not the hero). The hero (who learns of a murder via a letter) must decide whether a murder was really committed, and by whom. The hero acts crazy; it is not clear how much of this is pretending. The hero upbraids himself for delaying, although his only problem is figuring out how to kill a king surrounded by guards. There is a play-within-the-play. Athens Vs Sparta? The bad guys play roles, and are actually killed onstage. There are several records of a play, performed in 1594 at Newington Butts outside London, and probably earlier, about what were estates society Hamlet. It is described as a tragedy with a ghost crying Hamlet, revenge!. The play was evidently never published, and of course we do not have the manuscript.

Thomas Nashe wrote in 1589 in athens vs sparta, his introduction to a book by Robert Greene, English Seneca read by candlelight yields many good sentences -- as 'Blood is a beggar' and so forth; and if you entreat him fair on a frosty morning he will offer you whole Hamlets, I should say handfuls, of tragical speeches! Nashe is mostly spoofing Thomas Kyd, who wrote blood-and-thunder revenge plays. So Kyd is probably the Gregory, by Panos author of the first Hamlet play. In 1596, Thomas Lodge wrote about the athens vs sparta ghost which cried so miserably at the theater, like an essay oyster wife, 'Hamlet revenge!'. We can assume that this play had the murder a secret, and a ghost to reveal it to Hamlet. Some people will tell you that this play must be the source of these plot elements, which fit with the athens vs sparta genre: Hamlet's death and the surrounding circumstances. You can decide for yourself; we're not going to know whether these were introduced by Kyd (or whoever wrote the first Hamlet play) or by Shakespeare. It contains elements that distinguish it from the other versions we have of Shakespeare's Hamlet.

They might perhaps come from the older Hamlet play, via the actor's reconstruction. The spy is called Corambis, not Polonius. Dream Big; Act? His servant is athens Montano, not Reynaldo. The queen assures Hamlet she knew nothing of the essay on plagiarism murder -- but Hamlet hasn't even told her about vs sparta it. The queen promises to conceal, consent, and do her best to aid Hamlet in his revenge against the king. The queen warns Hamlet, via Horatio, of a plot. Whenever there is disagreement between Q1 and Q2 or F, Q1 is Gregory, by Panos Ioannides inferior -- making less sense, or not sounding so good. Some of the stage directions tell us things that we wouldn't know from other sources.

The ghost comes into the queen's bedroom in his pajamas (night gown); Ophelia plays the athens vs sparta lute (an early kind of guitar) when she's crazy. When Hamlet and Laertes fight, they catch one another's rapiers. Here is Hamlet's most famous speech as it appears in the Bad Quarto. To be, or not to Essay Dream Big; DREAM, be, aye, there's the point, To die, to sleep, is that all?

Aye, all. No, to sleep, to dream, aye merry, there it goes, For in that dream of death, when we awake, And borne before an athens everlasting Judge, From whence no passenger ever returned, The undiscovered country, at those sight. The happy smile, and Ioannides the accursed damned. But for athens this, the joyful hope of this,

Who'd bear the scorns and flattery of the world, Scorned by the right rich, the rich cursed of the poor? The widow being oppressed, the orphan wronged, The taste of hunger, or a tyrant's reign, And thousand more calamities besides, To grunt and sweat under this weary life, When that he may his full quietus make, With a bare bodkin?

Who would this endure, But for a hope fo something after death? Which puzzles the brain, and acid doth confound the sense, Which makes us rather bear those evils we have, Than fly to vs sparta, others that we know not of. Aye that, oh this conscience makes cowards of us all.

First Quarto (1603) -- visit here to the three society, see just how bad the bad quarto is. Warning: This link crashed my IE browser twice. Antonio's Revenge by John Marston, is mentioned by athens, a contemporary source as 1601, and has a very similar plot to Shakespeare's Hamlet. The murdered man's wife marries his murderer, and the murdered man's ghost calls his son to revenge. The son pretends to Gregory, Essay, be insane, and is melancholy. He walks around in black reading a book.

There is athens a play-within-a-play for essay no reason. The son foregoes an opportunity to kill the murderer in hopes of a better revenge later. The ghost speaks from beneath the athens vs sparta stage, and reappears in the mother's bedroom. The son's girlfriend dies of a broken heart. Probably Marston was using Shakespeare's plot, since Shakespeare has a literary source and Marston doesn't.

Der Bestrafte Brudermord (Fratricide Punished) is a German play that is obviously an adaptation of Shakespeare's Hamlet, which it resembles in magnesium in hydrochloric acid, contradistinction to Belleforest. A ghost appears to Francisco, Horatio, and the other guards at the beginning. Hamlet says he is sick at heart over his father's death and his mother's remarriage. Hamlet wants to athens vs sparta, go back to Wittenberg but the king asks him to stay in Denmark. Corambus's son Leonhardus goes to France. The king gets drunk, as is his habit.

The ghost tells how he was killed by having hebona poured in his ear. Hamlet makes Horatio and the guards promise not to tell what they have seen. They swear in several locations. Yahoo Uk? The ghost calls on them to swear from below ground. Hamlet begins acting crazy. Corambus remembers his own youth, and suggests that Hamlet is in athens, love.

Hamlet tells Ophelia to go to a nunnery. Hamlet stages a play-within-a-play. The king's guilt is revealed by his reaction when poison is Essay about Dream Big; DREAM Act poured into athens, the player-king's ear. Hamlet comes upon the king at prayer, but spares him so that his soul will not go to heaven. Hamlet kills Corambus by what the three society, stabbing him through a tapestry. Hamlet talks to his mother and is visited again by the ghost, who says nothing.

Ophelia goes crazy and commits suicide by jumping off a cliff. The two spies take Hamlet to an island off Dover, where they reveal their intention to shoot him. Vs Sparta? They stand on either side and let him give the were estates in french signal. Vs Sparta? He ducks and by Panos Essay they shoot each other. Hamlet finds that they carried letters instructing the English king to execute him if their plot fails. Hamlet, the king, the queen, and Leonhardus all die in the same ways as in Shakespeare's play. The king uses diamond dust as poison. (That won't work. -- Ed the Pathology Guy.). What's more, the scenes and narrative proceed in the same order as in Shakespeare's play. Somebody will tell you that the old man's name being Corambus is proof that Der Bestrafte Brudermord must therefore derive from the older Hamlet play. Vs Sparta? This seems silly to me.

I'd conclude, rather, that in the first run of Shakespeare's Hamlet, Polonius and yahoo Reynaldo were named Corambis and Montano, and that Shakespeare changed their names for some reason. Der Bestrafte Brudermord has some other points of agreement with Q1 against Q2, but even more with Q2 against Q1. Vs Sparta? So both seem to The History Violin Essay, be adaptations of athens, Shakespeare's original. So what did Shakespeare add? Shakespeare was constrained by his plot and directory uk genre to have Hamlet's revenge delayed, and to athens, have Hamlet talk about society being frustrated. Belleforest provided the essential plot. The old Hamlet play, which we do not have, must have contributed other elements. Shakespeare adds more. The play is very long, and must have been trimmed for production.

So Shakespeare must have written much of it to please himself. We also have another hint that Hamlet is Shakespeare's mouthpiece -- Shakespeare named his own son Hamnet. His neighbors in Stratford were Hamnet and Judith Sadler, and Hamlet's name was sometimes spelled Hamlet. Hamnet Shakespeare died in August 1596. To discern an author's intent, look for material that does not specifically advance the plot, typify the genre, or have strong mass-audience appeal. Here is athens vs sparta what Shakespeare added. Hamlet considers suicide, and The History of the Essay talks about athens vs sparta it in Gregory, Ioannides, words to which most of us can relate. Mostly, it's people's stupid mistreatment of other people that makes him think life is not worth living.

The one extended reference to Christianity (the rooster crows all night in the Christmas season) is a beautiful legend that is obviously not true. Hamlet's father, who he remembers so fondly, is burning in the afterlife for his sins. Either Hamlet's father was not such a fine person as Hamlet says, or the afterlife itself is athens vs sparta as unfair as our own world. (Of course Shakespeare could not talk about this possibility openly.) Speaking of the afterlife. On Plagiarism? Hamlet, considering suicide, mentions that no one has ever returned from the afterlife with any details. This is athens vs sparta despite the fact that we just saw him talking to a ghost. I think Shakespeare is Essay saying, This story is fiction. Athens Vs Sparta? The ideas Hamlet talks about are basic to human experience. The girl who is what were used as a spy on Hamlet is one about whom he cares very much, and who may be pregnant by him. In the athens original, the spy who gets killed in the bedroom is a nobody, a throw-away person killed as casually as in a bad action movie. The spy who Hamlet kills in his mother's bedroom is not only by Panos Essay, somebody we have gotten to know -- he is the father of the woman Hamlet loves.

Hamlet stabs him just because he is athens vs sparta distraught and not thinking clearly. Hamlet -- who lives in a bad world -- himself becomes culpable. Shakespeare does not allow us to overlook this. The two spies who Hamlet sends to Gregory, Ioannides, their deaths are his college fraternity brothers. Vs Sparta? It is not absolutely certain that they actually intend Hamlet any harm.

It's just conceivable that they are too stupid to realize what's going on. Hamlet is interested in acting, and coaches actors. One player over-acts, and Hamlet reflects on how people pay more attention to make-believe than to real life. In the prayer scene, Shakespeare lets us listen to the King as he tries to repent his crime, and fails. The king gains much stature and some sympathy. Hamlet talks to a foot soldier who knows that the war is stupid and that he is likely to die for no good reason.

Hamlet reflects that this dumb war is the result of of the Violin, rich people having nothing to do. The gravediggers crack jokes about death and suicide, remarking on how a politics and money allowed the athens vs sparta girl to receive a minimal Christian burial. The priest's remarks to Laertes show organized dogmatism at its most heartless. In Hydrochloric Acid? (In fact, this pathologist thinks Ophelia probably died accidentally.) Hamlet handles Yorick the beloved jester's skull and meditates on athens, how everybody ends up dead in the end. Hamlet likes the man with whom he fights his duel. Yahoo Directory? Hamlet has wronged Laertes as Claudius has wronged Hamlet, and Hamlet knows it. Hamlet tells Horatio he think that perhaps there's a divinity that shapes our ends and athens this made him board the pirate ship. Yahoo? From time to time, Hamlet talks about a sense that he is God's agent, with his steps guided by divine providence. But the athens vs sparta death-scene itself is explicitly without any Christian comfort.

In Q1 (recalled by Ioannides, the actor either from the earlier play, or from what a good-guy hero might be expected to say), Hamlet's last words were, Heaven receive my soul. Instead, Shakespeare's Hamlet speaks cryptic last words: The rest is silence. Generally, Hamlet talks a great deal about death and disease, without any suggestion of an orthodox religious faith to make it meaningful or bearable. Almost all readers and viewers come away from Hamlet liking the prince very much. He is athens a thinker, and he is yahoo uk funny. We see into his own mind, and discover him to athens vs sparta, be genuine and Essay about Big; DREAM sincere. We admire him for resisting the evil around him. But Hamlet is both stupid and mean when he kills Polonius. And it is hard to like his nasty, bitter outlook on life in the first half of the athens vs sparta play. Especially, if you do not like everything about today's teenaged Goth culture (wearing black, being clever and disrespectful, playing with people's feelings, complaining that life seems meaningless and empty), you won't like everything about the what the three estates society Hamlet who we meet at the beginning.

If this were an athens vs sparta action-movie or something by one of Shakespeare's contemporaries, the prince might be entirely sympathetic, and his enemies altogether despicable. It's characteristic of Shakespeare's later tragedies that our sympathies are always divided. Some of the most powerful serious movies (Shane, Unforgiven, Hoodlum -- all are revenge plays) have the same moral ambiguity. You can find examples from on plagiarism, classical tragedy as well (Agamemnon, Medea, many more). In Hamlet, Shakespeare explains why he writes in this way -- he intends to hold a mirror up to nature, to athens vs sparta, show us ourselves. I know not 'seems'. -- Hamlet. I'd already noticed when I was formally taught it in my medical school psychiatry course.

For most twenty-year-olds, the biggest life-issue is, What has happened to most forty-year-olds that caused them to in hydrochloric, lose the ideals and the authenticity of athens vs sparta, youth? For most forty-year-olds, the biggest life-issue is, How did I lose the ideals and authenticity that made me who I was when I was twenty? It's no coincidence that college Greeks profess high ideals. It's what makes them work. for people not yet corrupted by The History Violin, the world. Teenaged Holden Caulfield (Catcher in the Rye) described the shams of the phony society of the athens vs sparta wealthy, and in hydrochloric heard Hamlet had talked about the same theme. He plans to read the vs sparta play eventually. In the 1970's, it was usual for people to what were the three in french society, call each other phony if they thought differently about something, and there was no defending against vs sparta, it. Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn uses another young person to essay, comment on the falsity of adult society. Huck lives fairly well, as Hamlet does. Huck speaks only by his actions, without Hamlet's eloquence. Mark Twain uses humor and irony to show how much finer Huck is athens vs sparta than his betters.

The king holds a ceremonious first-public-meeting in I.ii. Polonius is estates in french buried without ceremony. Ophelia gets a limited ceremony. At the end, Fortinbras holds a ceremonial memorial for Hamlet. In Macbeth, we are treated to a spectacle from the same era of warlords that gives the setting for Hamlet. Everybody knows Macbeth killed Duncan, and nobody intends to do anything to bring him to justice, preferring the stability provided by another capable leader. In Hamlet's court, everybody (not just Hamlet, and athens probably even his mother) must suspect Claudius to be a murderer. After the play-within-the-play, it's obvious. Son: Dad, what's the difference between ignorance and yahoo directory uk apathy? Dad: Son, I don't know and I don't care. -- Contemporary.

At the end, Hamlet's fideism, a vague faith in God's ability to sort out the mess of this world without any more specific religious dogma, is the kind of faith that many honest, thinking people have reached in our own day. Elizabethans talked of vs sparta, God's general providence (the goodness and intelligence that created and sustains the world) and God's special providence (God guiding events subtly to make things work out for the right.) You will need to what were the three, decide for yourself whether special providence is at work in our own world, or whether Shakespeare actually believed so. Vs Sparta? But Hamlet thinks it does. Hamlet sees himself as God's agent, and he tells this to his friends (O cursed spite. ) and his mother (scourge and minister). Hamlet reflects on God's providence (fall of a sparrow) after his life is saved from the spies. Laertes sees his own death as God's judgment, and Hamlet as God's avenger. What is telling, though, is Essay Big; DREAM Act that this does not enable Hamlet to hope for, or expect, a better afterlife. Is Life Worth Living? If his chief good and athens vs sparta market of his time. Is but to uk, sleep and feed?

A beast, no more. -- Hamlet. Pathologists joke, Is life worth living? It depends on athens, the liver!. Seriously, we've all asked this question. Shakespeare offers no pat answer, only Hamlet's courage and dignity in accepting the human condition, saying No! to Essay Big; DREAM, corruption, and in meeting his own task and his own death. In the noir genre of hard-boiled detective fiction, the hero gradually learns about both public and private corruption. Nothing is athens vs sparta as it seems. The hero strikes back, but the ending is essay on plagiarism never completely happy. Hamlet is called to his revenge by heaven and hell, i.e., something that Shakespeare thought of as more fundamental than the struggle between good and evil.

Hamlet talks a great deal about the nature of athens vs sparta, human beings, characterizes himself as indifferent[ly] honest and could accuse himself of Big; Act, things for which it would have been better if he hadn't been born. We are left to wonder what these are, but soon Hamlet becomes the villain in a revenge story that mirrors his own. Old Hamlet, supposedly a good man, is burning for a while in purgatory for unconfessed sins of the kind that ordinary folks commit. Claudius, who Hamlet considers a very bad man, shows us his true mind twice, and we see a struggle between his hunger for divine grace and his need to keep his wife's love. The morality plays that preceded Shakespeare showed examples of good and bad people, and heroes that had a clear choice and made it.

Shakespeare seems to be telling us in Hamlet that we can and should try to live well, but that both good and bad are inherent in the human condition. Growing up, we must come to terms with our inability to live up to our own ideals. (You may have trouble finding much on athens vs sparta, life's gray areas in English literature before Shakespeare. Were In French Society? Even Chaucer published a pious deathbed retraction for his freethinking.) Today we hear a lot about the usual five stages of coming to terms with death (impact, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance.) As a physician, I've noticed that the sequence often happens as described, though it's by no means invariable. (People with a living, mature religious faith often -- but by no means always -- simply accept.) At the vs sparta end, Hamlet is magnesium in hydrochloric acid no longer depressed, but accepts the human condition.

Whether he's right to do so is something you'll need to decide. But it's a common experience for people growing up. And Shakespeare's shown it to us in Hamlet. If you find yourself wondering whether it's worth going on living in a world full of sham and wrong. perhaps you will find your own answers in unselfish love rather than in stoical acceptance. And perhaps you, too, can be a hero. Shakespeare was constrained by his plot. to have Hamlet pretend to be delusional; and. to have Hamlet kill the spy in his mother's bedroom. The principal scene in which Hamlet pretends to be crazy (puts [his] antic disposition on) is the one in which he teases Polonius, calling him a fishmonger (compare fleshmoner, or pimp. Athens? remember that Polonius wants money for his virgin daughter.) In the other scenes, Hamlet acts genuine and other people think he's crazy.

Ophelia describes Hamlet's silent visit and Polonius thinks it's craziness. Ophelia hears Hamlet telling her to The History Violin Essay, get out of a bad world, and athens vs sparta she thinks he's lost his reason. Hamlet's mother thinks Hamlet is crazy after becoming distraught at were in french, the end of the closet scene. After the play-within-the-play, the king knows Hamlet isn't crazy, but tells the rest of the court that he must be sent away to England because of his mental illness. Notice how Shakespeare adds a new theme -- be yourself, be genuine, and athens a fake world will consider you to be deviant. Shakespeare's Hamlet is already distraught, and in Gregory, Ioannides Essay, times of emotional distress, we do wrong things without thinking. Afterwards, Hamlet (who is athens indifferent honest), blames his madness for the killing of magnesium in hydrochloric acid, Polonius. The delusions are fake (as Claudius, and anybody familiar with real mental illness, will recognize). Athens Vs Sparta? The irrational striking-out in directory uk, a moment of emotional turmoil is very real.

Shakespeare's play focused on the mind of athens, a man who's profoundly distraught and who is asking himself whether life is worth living. Having Hamlet also pretend to be insane was central to the old story, but not to Shakespeare's play. Hamlet uses his feigned madness to point out to those around him how crazy and false the sane world is. There are themes and Violin real controversies that you can explore further, based on your own experience of life. T.S.

Eliot, asked whether the athens vs sparta madness of magnesium in hydrochloric acid, Hamlet was real or feigned, asked, Is the madness of Hamlet's critics real or feigned? This sums it up for athens vs sparta me. The nonsense about about Dream DREAM Hamlet being unable to athens vs sparta, make up his mind begins with his own speeches after hearing the Player King's speech on Hecuba (he berates himself for hesitating), and especially after talking to Fortinbras's soldier (thinking too precisely on the event -- i.e., people who obsess a lot are the ones who do the least). Obsessive-compulsive personality and neurosis are well-known, and mild variants have affected most bright people occasionally. Bradley points out that Hamlet seems depressed (melancholy) and that this will slow a person down; early 20th century writers influenced by psychoanalysis talked about Gregory, Essay a mother-fixation causing the depression. But the athens vs sparta truth is that Hamlet has no opportunity to kill the Big; Act king and athens vs sparta then justify his action, until the final disaster, when Laertes reveals The king's to blame. In the The History of the Essay case, providence provides the opportunity. Hamlet really does not delay his revenge any more than do Robocop or Nevada Smith. Heroes of earlier revenge plays soliloquize about having to delay, and vs sparta criticize themselves for it.

But revenge plays require that the revenge take time and planning -- or there would be no play. Sam Coleridge (an obsessive who blamed the what were estates society failure of his grandiose projects on his opium habit) talked about Hamlet thinking too hard. Coleridge identified with this Hamlet, but this isn't Shakespeare's Hamlet. Schlegel called Hamlet thought-sick. Goethe found Hamlet lovely, sensitive and without strength of nerve. Now, when Hamlet expresses regrets that he's not completed his revenge, he compares himself unfavorably to the Player King (who has just recited a ridiculous, bombastic speech) and to Fortinbras (who is getting thousands of people killed for no good reason at all -- I first became interested in Shakespeare during the Vietnam war). It is no coincidence that both the Player King and Fortinbras are pursuing stupid, vain goals.

What is Shakespeare trying to tell us? Hamlet's revenge isn't so much simply the athens vs sparta killing of the king, as it is the purging of all the what were in french rottenness in the Danish court. And although it costs him his life, he succeeds. At some time, we all consider how much wrong there is in the world. Hamlet gives us a chance to watch an athens vs sparta ordinary person consciously choose to say No! to The History of the Essay, the world's wrongness and phoniness, and to strike back with intelligence and power. From the bare-bones of an old revenge story, Shakespeare has held up the mirror to something in us that is precious.

I hear Hamlet saying, So many people put so much effort into athens vs sparta, doing things that are not worthwhile. It's a bad world, and I am far from Ioannides Essay, a perfect human being. And we all end up dead in the end. Vs Sparta? But I am going to do something worthwhile, and do it right. More on whether Hamlet has a tragic flaw. I believe that the whole there has to be a tragic flaw business was dreamed up by essay, Aristotle, who got paid to vs sparta, tell young people that if they were really good, then bad things couldn't happen to them, and that people went to sad shows just to have a good cry (purge the emotions of pity and fear). If it is helpful, point out the obvious. Aristotle said that a tragic hero should have character flaws so that we wouldn't see bad things happening to totally-good people. Maybe the Gregory, by Panos Essay heroes of Shakespeare's tragedies are not all-virtuous because Shakespeare wants to show us life as it really is. Since Sophocles's ultra-coldblooded Electra, revenge plays have been among the athens favorite genre for theater and by Panos Ioannides Essay movies. Why?

First, a revenge play presumes that to athens vs sparta, right a wrong, somebody is forced to take the law into his or her own hands. This showcases one of the most important and Gregory, Essay serious of human concerns -- how do we maintain good law (i.e., a government that really protects its people's lives and opportunities)? It's the central question of civilization. (The conclusion of Electra is vs sparta chilling -- read Sophocles's answer.) Second, the revenger must overcome obstacles to revenge. The lead character has a strong purpose with which we can identify, and we can share his or her feelings and thoughts. There is a satisfaction when revenge is finally won. Shakespeare's philosophy? You decide!

One may find ideas similar to by Panos Ioannides, those in Hamlet in Montaigne's essays (here's a top-flight college paper for an eager student), in Ecclesiastes (Old Testament, of course) and in the following famous twentieth-century piece (sometimes stated to athens, be much older). Go placidly amid the noise and magnesium haste, and remember what peace there may be in silence. As far as possible, without surrender, be on athens vs sparta, good terms with all persons. Speak your truth quietly and clearly; and listen to yahoo directory uk, others, even to the dull and ignorant; they too have their story. Avoid loud and athens aggressive persons; they are vexations to Essay, the spirit. If you compare yourself with others, you may become vain or bitter, for always there will be greater and lesser persons than yourself. Enjoy your achievements as well as your plans. Keep interested in athens, your own career, however humble, it's a real possession in The History Essay, the changing fortunes of time. Exercise caution in athens, your business affairs, for the world is full of trickery. But let this not blind you to essay, what virtue there is; many persons strive for high ideals, and vs sparta everywhere life is full of heroism. Be yourself.

Especially do not feign affection. Neither be cynical about love; for in the face of all aridity and disenchantment, it is as perennial as the yahoo directory uk grass. Take kindly the counsel of the years, gracefully surrendering the things of youth. Nurture strength of spirit to shield you in sudden misfortune. But do not distress yourself with dark imaginings. Many fears are born of vs sparta, fatigue and about Dream loneliness. Beyond a wholesome discipline, be gentle with yourself. You are a child of the universe no less than the trees and the stars; you have a right to be here. And whether or not it is clear to you, no doubt the universe is unfolding as it should. Therefore be at peace with God, whatever you conceive him to be. And whatever your labors and aspirations, in vs sparta, the noisy confusion of life, keep peace in your soul.

With all its sham, drudgery and what were estates in french broken dreams, it is athens still a beautiful world. Be cheerful. Strive to be happy. Contrast this with Polonius's advice to Laertes. Somebody will remind you that according to directory uk, the Christian ethics of Shakespeare's era, revenge was considered wrong. A saint would forgive and athens vs sparta bring about reconciliation. (As a Christian, I have discovered that this is possible more often than we might think.) Even ordinary people were not supposed to take the Dream DREAM law into athens, their own hands. It's hard, though, to Essay Dream, see this as a major theme of vs sparta, this revenge play. Somebody will tell you that Hamlet is about how it's difficult to of the, know the athens vs sparta right thing to do -- whether it's killing the in hydrochloric king, how to deal with an impossible home situation, or whether life is worth living. Somebody else will tell you that the real tragedy is that Hamlet kills the king, rather than forgiving him and living in love and harmony. In Hamlet's era, without effective birth control or stable democracy, bloody conflict was a fact of life. In an era of warlords, the best for which anyone could hope was a temporary truce and some justice.

Despite their individual virtues and their politically correct apologists, all real-life primitive societies are like this. Hamlet was fundamentally correct -- the athens world, by its very nature, is full of unpleasantness and wrong. How does Hamlet's attitude toward women change during the Gregory, by Panos play? Is this a major theme? (I think so -- it's not mentioned that often. Athens Vs Sparta? You decide.) Hamlet starts off very upset and claiming he wishes he was dead because of his mother's faithless to magnesium acid, his good father's memory. He urges Ophelia to withdraw from a rotten world full of rotten women.

Later, at the end of the closet scene, he reaffirms his love for his mother despite her faults, and in the graveyard scene affirms he loves Ophelia. If life has taught me anything, it's that people are to athens, be loved along with (not just in spite of) their imperfections. Perhaps you believe this as well. Eric Jones MD came up with an idea in Hamlet and Oedipus. Magnesium Acid? Hamlet cannot kill Claudius because he unconsciously identifies with him, due to Hamlet's old Oedpius complex, when he wanted to athens, have his mother incestuously.

Jones notes that Shakespeare's own dad died around the time the play was written. Nowadays, almost all psychiatrists will tell you that Freud's psychoanalysis is about Big; Act of historical interest, having shown very limited ability to predict the thoughts and actions of patients or to vs sparta, effect recovery. One of my own medical school psychiatry professors said, There's no 'Oedipus complex.' You can decide for yourself about Jones's claims. Is Ophelia pregnant with Hamlet's baby? Hamlet was romantically interested in Ophelia, and she in Essay about Big; DREAM, him, and they lived in vs sparta, the same castle. Hamlet jokes with Polonius about directory how his daughter might become pregnant, a pregnant rich girl might be sent for secrecy's sake to a convent (nunnery) and the child given for adoption, and Ophelia sings about lost virginity.

We aren't going to know. Supposedly there were two drownings in Shakespeare's community when he was younger. A lady named Alice suicided by jumping down a well when her family didn't approve of the man she loved. Another lady (Katherine Hamlet) accidentally fell into the river (she was carrying buckets). How these events may have affected Shakespeare's decision to athens, have Ophelia drown must remain speculative. You've already noticed that Shakespeare follows a rule from acid, his era -- the highest-ranking person on stage gets the first and last lines in each scene. An easy high-school paper can focus on how different characters approach the questions posted in the To Be or Not To Be soliloquy. Ophelia is mostly passive. People who go on to become schizophrenic are often quiet, passive people (schizoid). Shakespeare probably noticed this. Laertes is bold, forceful, and spouts lines from a bad Elizabethan revenge tragedy (I don't care if I go to hell -- contrast Hamlet's and Claudius's fear of damnation.)

Fortinbras bides his time, and grabs the athens vs sparta opportunity. Horatio is a classic stoic with a Roman's sense of honor and a Christian trust in God's power to help. Polonius is a manipulator. From Shakespeare's Era. If you are interested in the English religious controveries of Shakespeare's era, you may decide that some are reflected in Hamlet. Gregory, By Panos Ioannides? People who held to vs sparta, the Roman tradition might believe in Purgatory, a place of suffering where sins committed in life were burned away, and magnesium in hydrochloric acid where sufferings could be eased by purchasing the ministry of the church. Vs Sparta? Before the Reformation, this had helped make the relgious orders wealthy, and also sparked the founding of schools and essay on plagiarism hospitals where the beneficiaries were asked to pray for the sould of their benefactors.

People who still believed in athens vs sparta, the Roman doctrine of purgatory feared especially dying without the sacraments of the church, because the on plagiarism time in purgatory would be prolonged. The English government church forbidden even praying for vs sparta the dead. Probably many people didn't like this. On the other hand, the Puritans pressured for religious rituals to be even further curtailed. In an era without religious freedom, this had generated a lot of bad feeling. Stories of ghosts returning from purgatory, which had been popular before the Reformation, were dismissed as diabolical deceptions. For purposes of the magnesium in hydrochloric plot, there is really no reason for Old Hamlet to talk about athens his being in uk, torment or having died with all his imperfections on his head (i.e., unconfessed sins). Hamlet swears by Saint Patrick, who is athens sometimes described as the Essay Big; Act patron saint of Purgatory. Of course, Old Hamlet is in purgatory, which according to the the official government church doesn't exist.

When Laertes complains about the limited burial service given to his sister, people in the audience would have thought about the contemporary controversies. You can find out on your own what evidence exists to athens vs sparta, show that John Shakespeare, the author's father, was at on plagiarism, least a Roman Catholic sympathizer who wanted prayers for his soul after he died. (Ask about documents found in Stratford centuries later.) But you'll need to decide for yourself whether Shakespeare is using an old plot, or expressing his secret beliefs, or (my choice) showing us ourselves. More For Students. Kronberg Castle, in Helsingor (Elsinore), near Copenhagen, is supposedly Hamlet's castle. Photo. Commentary: T.S. Eliot on Hamlet and his Problems G Wilson Knight's remarks on vs sparta, Hamlet seem to be off-line today. Shakespeare always divides our sympathies. Knight sees Hamlet as more the villain than Claudius is.

Introduction to yahoo directory, Hamlet Postmodernist. . Athens Vs Sparta? or even perhaps to tell us that there is no truth, save for that truth given existence by a genius through theatrical devices, representation, illusion, and art. Uh? No Fear -- text along with 21st-century English translation. Sixty-Second Shakespeare -- Bloodbath at Danish Court -- 'Mad' Prince Hamlet Was Right All Along Trysto Hamlet -- extremely abridged, could be performed by by Panos Essay, small children. Oor Hamlet -- mock Scots ballad, very funny. Shakespeare's Sonnets. A remarkable sequence even by athens, today's standards.

The site author is, like me, committed to Gregory, by Panos Ioannides, making Shakespeare available to everybody, at no cost. Enjoy. Duane Morin -- an e-book is in preparation. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service.

The Undiscovered Country -- Hamlet site, promoting the author's e-book. Athens Vs Sparta? Looks good. To the Essay best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites. In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for a price in the low four figures. Athens Vs Sparta? I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and spare everybody from a lot of wasted time.

It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to The History of the Violin Essay, help everybody enjoy the athens works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. Essay Big; DREAM Act? If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. Great PerformancesDavid Tennant / Patrick Stewart -- watch the entire NC-17 play. Laurence Olivier -- introduction for children, well done. Royal Shakespeare Company -- David Tennant / Patrick Stewart; watch the play; highly recommended. Star Wars -- Hamlet and Laertes trade weapons.

Jude Law -- talks about his Hamlet. Coventry -- Patrick Stewart as Claudius. Sam West -- Royal Shakespeare Company 2000. Public Broadcasting System -- gets NC-17 rating. Psychological thriller. Graphic violence. Scenes of a supernatural nature. In a time of conflict, a voice from the grave will take a vengeful man to a place beyond sanity where only conspiracy and death await. Ethan Hawke's Hamlet is set in athens, contemporary New York City.

I liked it much better than most of the critics did. Bill Murry, who is always funny, plays Polonius and still shows up how cruelly he treats Ophelia. The popular movie Coraline quotes Hamlet's speech, What a piece of work. when the heroine, who is neglected by her parents, is tempted with false promises of by Panos, a richer and more meaningful life. The theme of the book and movie, which surely explains their popularity, is vs sparta that if parents don't attend to their children's needs to grow emotionally and mentally, someone else will. And it will probably be the wrong people. Oedipus the King -- including something about the tragic hero business. If you are asked to write about Shakespeare's tragic heroes or their tragic flaw or whatever, help yourself to my skeptical notes on Aristotle. You may find it more rewarding to focus on something at once more obvious and more profound. Shakespeare (unlike Sophocles) is writing about by Panos Ioannides Essay real-life, flesh-and-blood people (tragic flaws -- nobody always acts smart) who live in an imperfect world (tragic choices). In Shakespeare, our sympathies are usually divided among the athens vs sparta characters.

For this reason, Aristotle's thoughts on tragedy (i.e., people are imperfect) really seem more useful in discussing Shakespeare than in on plagiarism, discussing Sophocles. In my pathology course and athens here, my advice is the same -- focus on the human beings, the The History Violin real-life, individual situations. You may also decide there are some common theme elements (real vs. fake friendship; bad government is bad for the country; despite what has happened to you, you can still be a hero). If you decide that the philosophical Hakuna Matata (Everything is fine) song is ironic, then the central theme of The Lion King is that life is by its nature full of troubles and wrongs, and athens vs sparta you find its meaning in what you do about it this fact. Of course, compare and directory contrast papers are for beginners. (1) Look at the short story that provided the plot (click here. and notice how Shakespeare has portrayed racism as it really is in our world. Ordinary decent folks (i.e., the Venetian government) care only who a person is and what that person can do.

They consider Brabantio a jerk for accepting a person of another race as a friend but not as a son-in-law. Iago, who for athens whatever reason has a chip on his shoulder, spews racial venom for his own dark reasons. Desdemona is originally frightened by someone who looks different, but quickly learns to The History, love that person so that race become indifferent. (2) It is very common for special-forces operatives who return to athens vs sparta, civilian life and/or who try to sustain a marriage to have terrible difficulties. Those who are successful deserve our special admiration.

Too many become terribly confused and yahoo end up in self-destructive behaviors, both loving and athens vs sparta hating. It's one of what were estates society, our world's strangest ironies that romantic love is athens more treacherous and incomprehensible than war. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the links from there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the yahoo directory uk other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks and parentheses. This became standard to protect fragile bits of movable type.

My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. In one of the athens Bard's best-thought-of tragedies, our insistent hero, Hamlet, queries on two fronts about how life turns rotten. To be or not to be: that is the question; Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer. The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune.

Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, and get out of abusive relationships by any means. Tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances or what feelings you really harbor -- get guidance from other adults if you need it, and remember Polonius's advice, which works often enough in our crazy world). The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people. To include this page in a bibliography , you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Hamlet by William Shakespeare Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD.

Thanks for visiting. Health and friendship. reset Jan. 30, 2005: Athar: Hamlet is post-Christian. Bleakers: Sigh. Hamlet didn't find meaning, because there isn't any, but he did find peace. Ciphers: Hamlet found out he could act instead of brood. Doomguard: The court goes bad and everybody dies. Dust Folk: Hamlet finds peace in death.

Free League: There are many meanings here. Godsfolk: Hamlet develops as a person. Guvnurs: Nowadays with good forensic pathology, we could have proved the The History Violin case against vs sparta, Claudius without Hamlet having to take the law into his own hands. Hardheads: See what happens when law and order break down. Mercykillers: We love a good revenge play. Revolutionaries: Authority corrupts. Sensates: Hamlet showcases powerful feelings. Signers: There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so. Takers: Hamlet learned to quit moping and got what he wanted.

Xaositects: Crazy make sense people the Dream DREAM Act most. Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and vs sparta war on drugs profiteering. then the answer is probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, Is life worth living in in hydrochloric, a world full of wrong? And can I live well? -- then the answer is athens maybe that Shakespeare deals with basic human issues. Click here to see the author's friend, Dr.

Ken Savage, do it right. Thanks for the memories and for your friendship. Give me that man That is not passions slave, and I will wear him In my hearts core, ay, in my heart of heart.

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10 Free PDF Business Plan Templates. Vs Sparta. Business plan templates come in all forms, shapes and sizes. On Plagiarism. The beauty of PDF business plan templates, however, is that users can create their own business plans while having a guide or reference point readily available in vs sparta front of them. Whether a business owner wants to create his or her own business plan or replicate one, PDF business plan templates eliminate the arduous task of starting from scratch. Magnesium In Hydrochloric. Below are 10 PDF business plan templates to help you get started. If you need a business plan template for vs sparta a small business, there is no better place to look than the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA).

The SBA not only offers a Web-based business plan creator, but also a downloadable PDF business plan template from what were in french;s 8(a) Business Development Program. Vs Sparta. This no-fuss, straightforward business plan template hashes out the details of a business, with more than 50 prompts to help users answer the questions needed for a complete business plan. [ How to Start a Business: Step-by-Step ] Another government organization, the were society, U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs (VA), also provides useful resources for starting a business. Athens. In addition to offering a business plan template and essay financial projections charts, the VA#39;s Writing a Business Plan PDF contains information on why an entrepreneur should create a business plan, basic business plan guidelines and tips on athens vs sparta, the do#39;s and don#39;ts of writing a business plan. Used as the official business plan for the New York StartUP!

2014 Business Plan Competition, this PDF business plan template was adapted from Successful Business Plans (The Planning Shop, 2010) by by Panos Essay Rhonda Abrams. Each of the 12 sections of this business plan template includes instructions explaining what type of information to enter, as well as chapter references so you can look up more details. Vs Sparta. In addition, the magnesium in hydrochloric, template includes a SWOT analysis and optional technology plan. Need a quick and athens vs sparta painless, albeit unconventional, business plan? Try the Business Entrepreneurship Center#39;s (BEC) elevator pitch business plan. Instead of an entire business plan with typical sections written out such as executive summary, market analysis and financial projections the elevator pitch business plan template combines all these areas into one succinct paragraph. Find examples at the BEC#39;s downloadable PDF elevator pitch small business plan template. Gregory, By Panos Essay. 5. Athens Vs Sparta. The One Page Business Plan Company#39;s business plan template. Hate the were estates in french society, idea of writing out an entire essay for a business plan?

The One Page Business Plan Company offers a one-page business plan separated into athens, several sections vision, mission, objectives, strategies and action plans. You can answer all of these sections using keywords and short phrases. Were Society. PDF samples of the one-page business plan template are available for download via 6. $100 Startup One-Page Business Plan. Business plans don#39;t have to athens vs sparta be complicated.

The $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan template helps users craft a business plan by answering several short questions. About Dream. You can answer each question in one or two sentences. This PDF one-page template covers everything from an overview of your business to marketing, money matters and obstacle projections. 7. Biz Kids business plan template. Biz Kids, an online portal where kids teach kids about money and business, offers a step-by-step guide to writing a business plan. This PDF document breaks down each section with brief questions and simple formulas to help users complete the included one-page business plan template. Although the guide and plan are catered toward young entrepreneurs, these resources cover all the vs sparta, basics and by Panos Ioannides Essay are suitable for any type of business. 8. Athens Vs Sparta. Rowan University College of Business#39; sample plan.

Thinking about starting a consulting business? Check out Rowan University#39;s sample consulting business plan template. Part of the university#39;s Center for Innovation Entrepreneurship 2013 Rohrer Business Plan Competition, this 30-page PDF business plan template is a comprehensive example of acid what a consulting business plan entails, complete with financial charts and balance sheets. 9. business plan template., a Web-based business planning software provider, offers a simple business plan template specifically for startups.

The downloadable PDF business plan template includes instructions and tips for athens vs sparta completing each section, as well as sample charts to help users complete the what were the three estates society, financial areas of the business plan. 10. Athens Vs Sparta. SNIEDC fill-in-the-blank business plan. If you want to cover all of your bases, look no further than the Seneca Nation of Indians Economic Development Company#39;s (SNIEDC) PDF fill-in-the-blank business plan template. About Dream DREAM Act. This all-inclusive, 50-page business plan outline asks a series of questions so you can fill in each section of the business plan. It also includes detailed financial charts and a glossary of business terms. The SNIEDC is a Salamanca, N.Y.-based organization that aims to provide financial services and working capital support for enrolled members of the Seneca Nation of vs sparta Indians. Sara is a tech writer with a background in business and marketing.

After graduating from UC Irvine, she worked as a copywriter and blogger for nonprofit organizations, tech labs and lifestyle companies. She started freelancing in Essay about Dream Big; DREAM Act 2009 and joined Business News Daily in 2013. Follow Sara Angeles on Twitter @sara_angeles.

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eve resume tutorial This informative guide will give you the information you need prior to starting your journey in athens the EVE Online Universe. Make sure you read it carefully as there is a lot to learn! This guide covers the story, the various factions, the navigation and much much more! : AURA - New Eden's premier capsuleer AI technology. Long ago, before the rise of the 5 major empires, the human race was united as one.

Wormholes are cosmic anomalies that provide a shortcut to a distant location in space. Naturally the location of about Big; DREAM Act a wormhole exit is unknown until you enter it yourself and see what is on the other side. The exit could be trillions of light years away or in a neighbouring system. All wormholes have a mass limit and once the limit is vs sparta exceeded the wormhole will collapse with no way of re-opening it. Stargates allow pilots to what were in french, travel from one system in the universe to another, very accurately and very quickly by creating their own wormholes achieved by manipulating gravity fields of athens vs sparta nearby planets. Stargates need to be towed into essay on plagiarism, position and anchored properly by athens a crew of specialist engineers.

This process can take a very long time, hundreds of years in some cases. Crew members are often cryogenically frozen for the the entirety of the journey. With the EVE Gate unoperational and now seemingly impossible to finish, actions were then taken to try and recover lost contact with Earth but ultimately failed. To add to the problems an immensely bright and powerful electromagnetic turbulence appeared from within the on plagiarism EVE Gate itself, capable of tearing even the strongest of hulls apart with ease. The Amarr Empire - Lasers - Armour Tanking. Is a theocratic monarchy led by their mighty God-Empress. It is vs sparta said to acid, be the largest of all nations within New Eden, spanning 40% of the inhabited solar systems. Athens. The Amarr Empire is the three estates society known for its omnipresent religion and use of slave labour especially against the people of the Minmatar Republic. Vs Sparta. The Amarrians were the magnesium acid first to start conquering other races and factions and vs sparta force them into slavery once the EvE Gate closed. The Caldari State - Missiles - Shield Tanking.

Is a corporate dictatorship which is built up of several mega corporations. They are tough willed, ruthless and efficient in the board-room as well as on The History of the Essay, the battle field. Though not as large as the Amarr Empire or Gallente Federation, the Caldari State are still feared and respected for their strong economy which is only matched by their strength on the battle field. Caldari are living emblems of strength, persistence and dignity. The Gallente Federation - Hybrid - Drones. Is generally regarded as the vs sparta only true democracy of New Eden.

The Gallente are champions of liberty and of the fierce guardians of the human spirit. Its principles are brotherhood, fraternity, and equal rights to all men. The Gallente are strong opposers of the Amarr and their methods of slavery as well as the vs sparta Caldari's corporate dictatorship. The Gallente welcome all outsiders with open arms. The Minmatar Republic - Projectiles - Speed. Are a tough no-nonsence race who have faced many troubles in recent times. A tribal race, the were the three Minmatar are very independant and vs sparta fierce warriors. Many and most Minmatar have broken free of the what the three in french Amarr Empire's grasp but are still ashamed of how they were treated and athens vs sparta as such, have a deep hatred towards them.

The Minmatar are the most numerous of all the by Panos races in the world of athens vs sparta New Eden, but their vast numbers are divided into Gregory,, many factions. Sitting down in athens my Captain's Quarters. Alter your character's appearance and portrait. Any requirements with a blue book icon means you have not yet injected the skill. The Skill queue helps you organise your skills and train them in an efficient way. It can be accessed from your character sheet using the Gregory, Essay 'Open Training Queue' button as seen in the above image. CCP has now implemented skill injectors extractors.

Players can buy skill extractors with ISK or Aurum and, providing they have more than 5.5 million SP can extract 500k SP at a time, filling one extractor. Injectors can also be bought from the vs sparta market for ISK and on use will grant up to 500k SP depending on your current amount of SP. Diminishing returns comes into play at higher SP levels, these points being: 0 to 5 million Skill Points at time of by Panos use = 500.000 unallocated Skill Points. More information can be found here [] Your attributes (can be seen in your character sheet under 'attributes) Here is the vs sparta attributes window: (click to expand) When you open your character sheet you can use the settings to make it so all skills are displayed.

Rather than displaying ones you have only learnt. You will soon see there are a lot of skills to choose from and picking one to start out with can be a tough choice. Insurance is a small but important part of the game, you don't want to fly anything you can't afford to lose can't replace. Magnesium Acid. There are several types of insurance quotes you can purchase, each one costing an amount based on the amount of pay you receive incase your ship gets destroyed. The highest insurance level is Platinum, this quote is the highest costing insurance but also pays out the most ISK upon your ship being destroyed. Most players buy this, especially rookies who are at vs sparta, a higher danger of losing their ship due to inexperience. There are many different types of ships to play around with in EvE Online, some take little training and some take years of training to fly effectively. You must remember that bigger does not always necessarily mean better either. I see rookies all the time who train to yahoo uk, fly in the biggest ship they can as quickly as they can, only to find out they can't fit any turrets on there because they have poor engineering skills.

The Nyx (supercarrier) is one of the vs sparta game's most iconic looking ships standing at 3,318m in length. Now you will soon realize, if you didn't already know, that piloting your ship is Gregory, Ioannides done by giving specific commands. You can go anywhere within your solar system by just flying there the old fashioned way. Athens. To do this simply double click where you want to go. Your ship will then automatically turn and align to Gregory, by Panos Ioannides Essay, your destination. You can click planets, warpgates, stations pretty much everything!

Even deadspace. A Gallente frigate orbiting its target. You might be thinking What is a warp drive? How does it work? Well rookie, these are all questions I can answer.

A warp drive is a device that allows us to move our ships through space very quickly, and by very quickly I mean faster-than-light, to athens vs sparta, reiterate how fast that is, light travels at 299,792,458 metres per second which is approximately 186,282 miles per second. Now you might be thinking nothing can move quicker than light! and The History that is correct, sort of. Warping around a planet has a great visual effect! Stargates are large man-made objects found throughout most systems in New Eden. Vs Sparta. Through the use of artificial wormholes, created by exploiting gravitational resources, a stargate can transfer your ship into another neighboring region of space almost instantly. This Amarrian Stargate leads to a distant Solar System. Every ship in in hydrochloric New Eden comes with its very own Auto-Pilot. To use your auto-pilot, you must first set a destination. Athens Vs Sparta. When your destination is set [this can be done by right-clicking a location and selecting 'set destination'] you can then initiate auto-pilot. When you are out and about flying in EvE, you are actually in The History Violin a ship, inside a ship.

This internal structure is athens called a 'Pod' and when your ship blows up, you will be ejected. Think of it like an emergency escape pod. You are only considered truly dead when you are killed in your pod, a term often regarded as being 'podded'. This is magnesium my pod, there are many like it, but this one is athens vs sparta mine. Clones are what separate us from essay regular humans. For we are immortal. When you die in EvE (podded) you will come back to life in a clone. Jump Clones allow a player to swap between clones in different stations, this can be useful if a player has extremely expensive implants, but doesn't want to risk getting them destroyed if out on a long and dangerous mission. Athens Vs Sparta. Or just needs to get somewhere fast. It also allows for The History of the Essay, flexibility in skill training. The Solar System map is also used along with the scanner and exploration feature of EVE.

The Star Map can look a little daunting at first, flatten it for vs sparta, an easier view! [0.4] - [0.1] (lowsec) CONCORD alerts players to magnesium, criminal activites. [-1.0] (Wormhole space) No CONCORD Presence. Shooting you without reason. Every player in game has a security status. If you kill players, your sec status will drop. If it drops too far, you will be considered an outlaw and athens people will be free to fire upon you in what were the three in french society highsec without CONCORD interference. Vs Sparta. You can gain positive sec status by Essay about DREAM running missions or killing 'rats' (enemy NPCs) in nullsec.

-2.5 and vs sparta above: you can enter 0.9-sec. -3.0 and above: you can enter 0.8-sec. -3.5 and above: you can enter 0.7-sec. -4.0 and above: you can enter 0.6-sec. -4.5 and above: you can enter 0.5-sec. -5.0 and lower: you are considered an essay, outlaw and other players can attack you in high-sec without CONCORD intervention. When you participate in aggressive behaviour in EVE (whether it's against another player or not) you will receive an aggression timer that will be displayed on athens, your UI. click to expand. Before you start doing anything related to combat in EVE, you will need a fitted ship. Fitting is an important aspect of yahoo EVE as the outcome of a fit will determine how effective you are against certain enemies.

There are thousands of ways you can fit your ship and getting it right can be challenging, especially if you are new. You can always ask on the forums for guidance or within the game itself, someone will no doubt lend you a hand and give you a few tips ideas. You will be presented with a window that looks something similar to this: (click to expand) The Ship Fitting window can be viewed both in and outside a station. Once the window has opened you will see a lot of information on the right hand side of the new window (this is a breakdown of athens all your stats) and to the left you will see your active modules and your ship.

Everything you want to Gregory, by Panos Essay, know about your ship is found here, so I would recommend that you take some time to read through what each icon says. (hover your mouse over certain icons for more detailed information) In order to be able to shoot at things in EVE Online your ship must first be fitted with either a turret or launcher. Launchers are used to athens, fire rockets, missiles and torpedos whereas turrets can fall in to one of three categories and these are; laser, projectile and hybrid. Fitting a turret/launcher will use some of your ships powergrid and CPU. (some will use more than others) Rockets (small), Heavy Assault Missiles (medium), Torpedoes (large), XL Torpedoes (extra large) - Short Range. Once you have fitted a launcher/turret onto your ship you will need to yahoo, add some ammunition to it. Each type of turret/launcher uses it's very own special type of ammunition to fire at the enemy and these are:

Frequency Crystals - Unlike the other turrets ammunition, frequency crystals do not deteriorate once fired. This means that you do not need to carry lots of ammo with you or go back for more in athens vs sparta the middle of a fight. However, the Tech2 variant of the crystal does deteriorate, but it takes a very long time so if you are using this type be sure to keep an extra few in your cargo hold. As light travels extremely quickly, there is no flight time to by Panos Ioannides Essay, hit the athens target, as soon as the weapon is fired the what in french target ship will be instantly hit. Vs Sparta. Frequency Crystals come in different frequencys that alter the range and damage of the Dream weapon. Their major drawback is the fact that they only do one type of vs sparta damage and that is EM/Thermal, which is good for penetrating shields but not as good for penetrating armour. Projectile Ammo - Unlinke lasers and hybrids, projectiles do not use the about Act capacitor as a resource. The advantages of projectiles is they come in all forms of athens vs sparta damage (EM/Thermal/Explosive/Kinetic) making them versatile. They do however have a lower DPS than the other turrets and a lower optimal range but boast an essay on plagiarism, impressive fall off radius.

Hybrid Turrets use. Hybrid Charges - Like the athens vs sparta Laser Turrets, the Hybrid turret uses the capacitor as a resource (not to the extent of lasers though). Like lasers, hybrids can only essay, fire a certain ammunition type (thermal/kinetic). They burn through their ammunition quickly but boast a larger magazine capacity. Missile Launchers use. Rocket (Short ranged charge typically used by athens vs sparta Frigates/Destroyers) Missiles, like projectiles do not require the use of the ships capacitor to magnesium, fire. They are also capable of loading their launchers with each damage type (EM/Thermal/Explosive/Kinetic). Missiles never miss their target but can be out paced by a fast ship or one that is out of range of its flight time. Missiles, unlike the athens other weapon systems, can be fired at once they are in Gregory, flight (using defender missiles or a well timed smartbomb).

The thing to remember about missiles is vs sparta that they have an The History Violin Essay, explosion velocity which will modify how much damage you do to your oponent. Vs Sparta. If the target's speed is a lot faster than the what were the three in french society explosion velocity of the missile, the vs sparta damage dealt to what were the three estates in french society, the opponent will be reduced as the vs sparta target is outrunning the explosion. Each type of turret (Laser, Hybrid Projectile) has a tracking speed associated with it. This value determines how quickly (or slowly) the turret turns. Small turrets have fast tracking speeds and Extra Large turrets have very low tracking speeds. Essay About DREAM Act. The short range turrets have a higher tracking speed than their long range counterparts too. So if a ship is orbiting around you at a fast speed and you have large/long range turrets, you wont hit it.

You would need a turret with a faster tracking speed such as a small/short range turret. Every ship in EVE (and every other object) has a signature radius. The larger the ship, the larger the signature radius and vice versa. A smaller signature radius makes a ship harder to hit with turrets due to vs sparta, tracking effects, take less damage from missiles, and take longer to lock. Of The Essay. The signature radius of athens a ship can greatly increase if the ship is using a micro-warp drive, making it far easier to hit.

Before you can rain fiery doom upon an enemy, you must first target the enemy. (with exception to some missiles and smartbombs) Signature Radius - Higher enemy signatures make for an easier and quicker lock time. Depending on Gregory, by Panos Ioannides, what ship you fly and your skills in targeting, will factor on how many targets you can have locked at one time. To increase the number of vs sparta targets you can lock on were the three in french society, to at once you should train the athens vs sparta Targeting skill which will give you a +1 targeting bonus for every skill level. Then when you hit Targeting 5 you can begin training Multitasking which will give yet another +1 targeting bonus per skill level up to a maximum of 5 at directory uk, skill level 5. Every turret based weapon system in EVE has an optimal range associated with it. Athens Vs Sparta. This data dictates the range your ship should be at in relation to the target for your weapons to have the most chance of hitting and doing the most damage per second.

You can see your weapons optimal range by hovering your mouse over the turret/ammo icon or looking at your ships info. Fall Off is a measurement given to the excess range in which your ship's weapon systems still have a chance to hit your target after optimal range has been passed. If you can't get in to directory, optimal range then fall off is your second best location. Athens Vs Sparta. You will do the same damage if you hit your target in fall of magnesium in hydrochloric range, but your chance to miss will increase the further the athens vs sparta target moves in to what the three society, fall off. The Tactical Overlay - Displaying the ship's max targeting range (dashed red line) and the turret's fall off/optimal range (medium/small red circle respectively). After you have a target locked, you will want to try and get in to optimal range if you aren't already (that is of course unless you're using missiles).

Depending on what ship you fly and athens with what modules, will determine how quickly you get there, if at all. Sometimes you may come across a group of enemies that may web you, this 'stasis webifier' will slow your ship down drastically, making you easier to hit as you aren't capable of moving very fast and will allow the enemy to keep you at their optimal range. You should find out what is Gregory, Ioannides Essay causing this web and athens vs sparta kill it right away, preferably before it has the chance to web you. Drones are small, pilotless ships that are micro-managed by capsuleers in EVE Online. They come in all shapes and sizes and each playable faction has their own drone speciality you can train in to. The Gallente however, are generally considered to be the king of drones, as most of on plagiarism their ships focus on boosting drone damage and effectiveness in combat.

If you're a new player, the vs sparta first thing you'll want to acid, be doing before heading out are the athens Opportunities. Uk. They are great because you can pick which area of the vs sparta game interests you and learn about it at on plagiarism, your own pace, without having to go through lots of vs sparta other stuff beforehand. If you're finding an opportunity too difficult, you can progress through a different one and come back to it later. Agents are NPC's (non player characters) that supply players with missions to essay on plagiarism, accomplish in athens vs sparta EVE. They come in various specialities (combat, industry, exploration etc) and difficulties known as 'levels'.

A Level 1 agent offering the easiest/least rewarding of missions and in hydrochloric a Level 5 agent being the most difficult but most rewarding. Partaking in missions and completing them will earn you standing to the agent who gave you the mission and the corporation/faction they belong to. You will also lose standing to the opposing faction you encounter on that mission. Agent - Standing with an athens, Agent will increase on mission completion. There are several factions and hundreds of npc corporations in New Eden. Completing missions for yahoo uk, one faction is inevitably going to vs sparta, lower your standing with another. Pirate factions in acid most cases. A wormhole found in High Security space leading to a destination unkown.

A probe launcher fitted to your ship. If you are really interested in getting in to EVE Online, then I suggest you join a player corporation. A player corporation is what some might consider a guild in other MMO's and that is a collection of individuals who have joined forces under the vs sparta same banner to meet a common goal. Whether that goal is mining, pve, pvp or simply a social aspect there is a corp for it in the EVE Universe. The Corporation window has all the tools you need to The History, find the right corp for you! The time-zone the athens players of the Corporation are based in. After considering all of these things, you should start talking to the corporation in their public channel (if they have one). This information will be given in a forum post or their corp info. Corporations are a great way to what, get in to the game, there is also a great Corp for new players who are serious about learning more about athens EVE called EVE University, you should check them out!

Alliances are a group of uk 2 or more corporations that have united under a bigger banner. Athens Vs Sparta. Often alliances will have many corporations in their roster, fulfilling out The History of the Violin, multiple roles. Vs Sparta. Such as a mining and refining division, a construction division, a trading division and a combat division. These are just some examples and you will find a lot more corporations helping their alliances out in acid other ways than listed here. Athens. Alliances can fight for sovereignity of null-sec space ( [0.0] systems or lower). If it seems too good to be true, 99.9% of the time it is. Most scams tend to be contract scams where the scammer will advertise selling an item for a lot more than its total value. Yahoo Directory. Be sure to check any contracts over before accepting. [Q] - What does a yellow coloured wreck mean? [A] - This wreck belongs to another player, if you loot this wreck you will be flagged as a suspect.

Other players will be able to shoot you without CONCORD interference. [A] - This wreck has been abandoned and anyone can loot it without penalty. [A] - You can claim items by either selecting redeem items next to vs sparta, the log in button on the character select screen (will look like a big parcel) or alternatively when you are in game hit the Esc key and what the three society click redeem items (can be found to the left of close window). [A] - See above answer. (Note: May take an hour or so for a plex to appear in your redeem items location) [A] - You can only athens vs sparta, fit items to your ship whilst docked in a station. This can be done by right clicking the module(s) and selecting fit to The History of the Violin, ship. Alternatively you can drag the module into it's appropriate slot having opened the fitting window.

[A] - You can sell items on the market whilst you are docked in a station (Providing the object you wish to sell is located in the item hangar (not your ships cargo hold). Right click the object you wish to vs sparta, sell and click sell. Note that if you are attempting to sell a module that has been previously fit to your ship you will need to repackage the item first (right click, repackage.). Yahoo Directory. Note that the item needs to athens vs sparta, be fully repaired in order to repackage it. [A] - A rig slot is a fitting slot that fits ship modifications called Rigs. They are modifications that permanently increase your ships performance (sometimes at magnesium acid, a cost) in a particular way. Once added to your ship they can't be removed without destroying the rig in athens vs sparta the process, you can replace a rig with another rig but doing so will destroy the old rig. [A] - It's not unusual for essay, asteroid belts to be completely stripped of their resources. Vs Sparta. Especially in higher security systems where there is more of a population. Essay. Asteroid fields replenish after the daily server downtime (11:00am GMT-0) so it is not uncommon for the belts to be depleted as the vs sparta day goes on.

[A] - Server downtime begins every day at essay, 11:00am GMT-0 (which also happens to athens, be EVE time) and usually lasts between 15 minutes to half an hour. [A] - You can use a total of 10 implants. 5 attribute enhancers and essay on plagiarism 5 hardwiring implants. Athens. Attribute enchancers increase your attributes by up to +5 at cybernetics skill level V. Hardwiring implants increase your performance in a specific field of work. Gregory, Ioannides Essay. Such as damage modifiers or repair bonuses. All implants provide a passive bonus. Implants are lost when your pod is athens destroyed and can't be removed/replaced without destroying them first. There are many websites and tools available for EVE players. I will list some popular ones and directory explain what they do. EVEMon [] - Is an incredibly popular tool that allows you to review your characters without having to log in.

Displaying your skills, wallet, eve mail and much more. However EVEMon is primarily used as a skill planner, allowing you to browse every ship in the game and it will display the skills you need in order to fly it. You can then ask EVEMon to optimise your attributes and it will calculate what attributes will shorten your training time the most. I highly recommend it. eveboard [] - Is a popular website among capsuleers, it allows a pilot to athens vs sparta, display their skills to other members, passwords can be applied to make your sheet only yahoo directory, available to people you want to see. It is often used in regard with EVE's character bazaar which players use to buy and sell characters as it gives all the athens information you could want to know before buying a character. Other cool features include global rankings, who has the magnesium most skill points or most skills trained to level 5 for example. Thanks for taking the time to read through this guide.

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fontier thesis The Significance of the athens vs sparta, Frontier in American History. It would not be possible in the limits of this paper to trace the other frontiers across the were estates society, continent. Travelers of the athens, eighteenth century found the cowpens among the canebrakes and peavine pastures of the South, and the cow drivers took their droves to Charleston, Philadelphia, and New York. Travelers at the close of the War of 1812 met droves of more than a thousand cattle and swine from the interior of Ohio going to Gregory, Ioannides Essay Pennsylvania to fatten for the Philadelphia market. Vs Sparta! The ranges of the Great Plains, with ranch and cowboy and nomadic life, are things of yesterday and in french, of to-day. Vs Sparta! The experience of the Carolina cowpens guided the by Panos Essay, ranchers of athens vs sparta Texas. One element favoring the rapid extension of the rancher's frontier is the fact that in a remote country lacking transportation facilities the product must be in small bulk, or must be able to transport itself, and the cattle raiser could easily drive his product to the three market. The effect of these great ranches on the subsequent agrarian history of the localities in athens vs sparta which they existed should be studied. The maps of the census reports show an uneven advance of the farmer's frontier, with tongues of Gregory, Ioannides settlement pushed forward and with indentations of vs sparta wilderness.

In part this is due to Indian resistance, in acid part to the location of river valleys and passes, in part to the unequal force of the centers of frontier attraction. Among the important centers of vs sparta attraction may be mentioned the following: fertile and favorably situated soils, salt springs, mines, and magnesium in hydrochloric, army posts. The frontier army post, serving to protect the settlers from the Indians, has also acted as a wedge to open the Indian country, and has been a nucleus for settlement. In this connection, mention should also be made of the government military and exploring expeditions in determining the lines of settlement. Athens Vs Sparta! But all the Gregory, Ioannides Essay, more important expeditions were greatly indebted to the earliest pathmakers, the Indian guides, the traders and trappers, and the French voyageurs, who were inevitable parts of governmental expeditions from the days of Lewis and Clark. Each expedition was an athens vs sparta, epitome of the previous factors in western advance. In an interesting monograph, Victor Hehn has traced the effect of salt upon early European development, and has pointed out how it affected the lines of settlement and the form of administration. A similar study might be made for the salt springs of the United States.

The early settlers were tied to the coast by the need of salt, without which they could not preserve their meats or live in Violin comfort. Writing in 1752, Bishop Spangenburg says of a colony for which he was seeking lands in North Carolina, An annual pilgrimage to the coast for salt thus became essential. Taking flocks or furs and ginseng root, the early settlers sent their pack trains after seeding time each year to the coast. This proved to be an important educational influence, since it was almost the only way in which the pioneer learned what was going on in the East. But when discovery was made of the athens, salt springs of the Kanawha, and the Holston, and Kentucky, and central New York, the West began to be freed from dependence on the coast. It was in part the effect of finding these salt springs that enabled settlement to cross the mountains.

From the time the mountains rose between the pioneer and the seaboard, a new order of Americanism arose. The West and the East began to get out of The History Essay touch of each other. The settlements from the sea to vs sparta the mountains kept connection with the rear and had a certain solidarity. But the over-mountain men grew more and more independent. The East took a narrow view of American advance, and nearly lost these men. Kentucky and Tennessee history bears abundant witness to the truth of essay this statement. The East began to try to hedge and limit westward expansion. Though Webster could declare that there were no Alleghenies in his politics, yet in politics in general they were a very solid factor. Good soils have been the most continuous attraction to athens the farmer's frontier.

The land hunger of the Virginians drew them down the rivers into Carolina, in acid early colonial days; the search for athens soils took the Massachusetts men to Pennsylvania and to New York. Were In French! The exploitation of the vs sparta, beasts took hunter and essay on plagiarism, trader to the West, the exploitation of the grasses took the rancher west, and the exploitation of the virgin soil of the river valleys and prairies attracted the farmer. As the eastern lands were taken up, migration flowed across them to the west. Daniel Boone, the great backwoodsman, who combined the athens, occupations of hunter, trader, cattle-raiser, farmer, and surveyor -- learning, probably from the traders, of the Gregory, by Panos Essay, fertility of the lands of the upper Yadkin, where the athens, traders were wont to rest as they took their way to the Indians, left his Pennsylvania home with his father, and passed down the Great Valley road to that stream. Learning from a trader whose posts were on Gregory, by Panos Essay, the Red River in athens Kentucky of its game and rich pastures, he pioneered the way for the farmers to that region. Thence he passed to the frontier of Missouri, where his settlement was long a landmark on the frontier. Here again he helped to open the way for civilization, finding salt licks, and trails, and land.

His son was among the earliest trappers in the passes of the Rocky Mountains, and his party are said to have been the first to camp on the present site of Denver. His grandson, Col. A. J. Boone, of Colorado, was a power among the what were estates in french society, Indians of the Rocky Mountains, and was appointed an vs sparta, agent by the government. Kit Carson's mother was a Boone. Thus this family epitomizes the backwoodsman's advance across the continent. The farmer's advance came in a distinct series of waves. In Peck's New Guide to the West, published in Cincinnati in 1848, occurs this suggestive passage: Generally, in all the western settlements, three classes, like the waves of the ocean, have rolled one after the other. Essay On Plagiarism! First comes the pioneer, who depends for the subsistence of his family chiefly upon the natural growth of vegetation, called the range, and the proceeds of hunting.

His implements of agriculture are rude, chiefly of his own make, and his efforts directed mainly to a crop of corn and a truck patch. The last is a rude garden for growing cabbage, beans, corn for roasting ears, cucumbers, and potatoes. A log cabin, and, occasionally, a stable and corn-crib, and a field of a dozen acres, the timber girdled or deadened, and fenced, are enough for his occupancy. It is quite immaterial whether he ever becomes the owner of the athens, soil. He is the occupant for the time being, pays no rent, and feels as independent as the lord of the manor.

With a horse, cow, and yahoo directory uk, one or two breeders of swine, he strikes into athens the woods with his family, and becomes the founder of a new county, or perhaps state. The Three Estates! He builds his cabin, gathers around him a few other families of similar tastes and habits, and occupies till range is somewhat subdued, and hunting a little precarious, or, which is more frequently the case, till the neighbors crowd around, roads, bridges, and fields annoy him, and he lacks elbow room. The Preemption Law enables him to vs sparta dispose of his cabin and cornfield to what the three estates in french society the next class of emigrants; and, to employ his own figures, he breaks for the high timber, clears out for the New Purchase, or migrates to vs sparta Arkansas or Texas to work the same process over. The next class of emigrants purchase the lands, add field to field, clear out the Dream DREAM, roads, throw rough bridges over the streams, put up hewn log houses, with glass windows and brick or stone chimneys, occasionally plant orchards, build mills, school-houses, courthouses, etc., and exhibit the picture and forms of plain, frugal, civilized life. Another wave rolls on. The men of capital and athens, enterprise come. The settler is ready to sell out and take the advantage of the rise in property, push farther into essay on plagiarism the interior and become, himself, a man of capital and enterprise in turn. The small village rises to a spacious town or city; substantial edifices of vs sparta brick, extensive fields, orchards, gardens, colleges, and churches are seen. Broad-cloths, silks, leghorns, crepes, and all the refinements, luxuries, elegancies, frivolities, and essay on plagiarism, fashions are in athens vs sparta vogue.

Thus wave after wave is about Dream DREAM Act rolling westward -- the real Eldorado is still farther on. A portion of the two first classes remain stationary amidst the general movement, improve their habits and condition, and rise in the scale of society. The writer has traveled much amongst the vs sparta, first class -- the real pioneers. He has lived many years in essay on plagiarism connection with the second grade; and now the third wave is sweeping over large districts of Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri. Migration has become almost a habit in the West. Hundreds of men can be found, not over 50 years of athens vs sparta age, who have settled for the fourth, fifth, or sixth time on a new spot. To sell out and remove only a few hundred miles makes up a portion of the variety of backwoods life and manners. Omitting the pioneer farmer who moves from the love of yahoo directory adventure, the advance of the more steady farmer is easy to understand. Obviously the immigrant was attracted by the cheap lands of the frontier, and even the native farmer felt their influence strongly. Year by year the farmers who lived on soil, whose returns were diminished by unrotated crops were offered the virgin soil of the frontier at nominal prices. Their growing families demanded more lands, and these were dear.

The competition of the unexhausted, cheap, and easily tilled prairie lands compelled the farmer either to go west and continue the exhaustion of the soil on a new frontier, or to adopt intensive culture. Thus the census of 1890 shows, in the Northwest, many counties in which there is an absolute or a relative decrease of population. These States have been sending farmers to advance the frontier on the Plains, and have themselves begun to turn to intensive farming and to manufacture. A decade before this, Ohio had shown the same transition stage. Thus the demand for land and the love of athens wilderness freedom drew the frontier ever onward. Having now roughly outlined the various kinds of frontiers and yahoo uk, their modes of advance, chiefly from the point of view of the frontier itself, we may next inquire what were the influences on the East and on vs sparta, the Old World. A rapid enumeration of some of the more noteworthy effects is all that I have time for. First, we note that the frontier promoted the formation of a composite nationality for the American people. The coast was preponderantly English, but the later tides of continental immigration flowed across to the free lands.

This was the case from the early colonial days. The Scotch-Irish and the Palatine Germans, or Pennsylvania Dutch, furnished the dominant element in the stock of the colonial frontier. With these peoples were also the freed indented servants, or redemptioners, who at by Panos Ioannides Essay the expiration of their time of service passed to the frontier. Governor Spotswood of athens vs sparta Virginia writes in 1717, The inhabitants of our frontiers are composed generally of such as have been transported hither as servants, and, being out of their time, settle themselves where land is to be taken up and that will produce the necessaries of life with little labor. Very generally these redemptioners were of non-English stock. In the crucible of the frontier the immigrants were Americanized, liberated, and fused into a mixed race, English in in hydrochloric neither nationality nor characteristics. The process has gone on from the early days to our own. Burke and other writers in the middle of the eighteenth century believed that Pennsylvania was threatened with the danger of being wholly foreign in language, manners, and perhaps even inclinations. The German and Scotch-Irish elements in the frontier of the South were only less great. Vs Sparta! In the middle of the present century the German element in Wisconsin was already so considerable that leading publicists looked to the creation of a German state out of the in hydrochloric acid, commonwealth by concentrating their colonization. Such examples teach us to beware of misinterpreting the fact that there is a common English speech in America into a belief that the athens, stock is also English.

In another way the advance of the frontier decreased our dependence on England. The coast, particularly of the South, lacked diversified industries, and was dependent on England for the bulk of its supplies. In the South there was even a dependence on the Northern colonies for articles of food. Governor Glenn of South Carolina writes in the middle of the eighteenth century: Our trade with New York and Philadelphia was of this sort, draining us of all the Essay, little money and athens vs sparta, bills we could gather from in hydrochloric other places for their bread, flour, beer, hams, bacon, and other things of their produce; all which, except beer, our new townships begin to supply us with, which are settled with very industrious and thriving Germans. This no doubt diminishes the number of shipping and the appearance of vs sparta our trade, but it is far from being a detriment to us. Before long the frontier created a demand for merchants. As it retreated from the coast it became less and less possible for England to bring her supplies directly to the consumer's wharfs and carry away staple crops, and staple crops began to give way to diversified agriculture for a time. The effect of this phase of the frontier action upon the northern section is perceived when we realize how the advance of the frontier aroused seaboard cities like Boston, New York, and Baltimore, to directory engage in rivalry for what Washington called the extensive and valuable trade of a rising empire. The legislation which most developed the athens, powers of the national government, and played the largest part in in hydrochloric its activity, was conditioned on athens vs sparta, the frontier. So long as free land exists, the opportunity for a competency exists, and economic power secures political power.

But the democracy born of free land, strong in selfishness and what the three, individualism, intolerant of vs sparta administrative experience and education, and pressing individual liberty beyond its proper bounds, has its dangers as well as its benefits. Individualism in magnesium in hydrochloric America has allowed a laxity in vs sparta regard to governmental affairs which has rendered possible the spoils system and on plagiarism, all the athens vs sparta, manifest evils that follow from the lack of a highly developed civic spirit. From the conditions of frontier life came intellectual traits of profound importance. The History! The works of travelers along each frontier from colonial days onward describe certain common traits, and these traits have, while softening down, still persisted as survivals in the place of their origin, even when a higher social organization succeeded. The result is that, to athens the frontier, the American intellect owes its striking characteristics. That coarseness and strength combined with acuteness and inquisitiveness, that practical, inventive turn of mind, quick to find expedients, that masterful grasp of material things, lacking in the artistic but powerful to effect great ends, that restless, nervous energy, that dominant individualism, working for good and for evil, and withal that buoyancy and exuberance which comes with freedom -- these are traits of the frontier, or traits called out elsewhere because of the existence of the frontier. Since the days when the fleet of Columbus sailed into the waters of the New World, America has been another name for opportunity, and the people of the United States have taken their tone from the incessant expansion which has not only essay on plagiarism, been open but has even been forced upon them. He would be a rash prophet who should assert that the expansive character of American life has now entirely ceased. Movement has been its dominant fact, and, unless this training has no effect upon a people, the American energy will continually demand a wider field for its exercise. But never again will such gifts of free land offer themselves. For a moment, at the frontier, the bonds of custom are broken and unrestraint is triumphant.

There is not tabula rasa . Athens! The stubborn American environment is what in french there with its imperious summons to accept its conditions; the inherited ways of doing things are also there; and vs sparta, yet, in spite of environment, and in spite of custom, each frontier did indeed furnish a new field of what were the three estates society opportunity, a gate of athens vs sparta escape from the bondage of the past; and freshness, and confidence, and scorn of the three in french older society, impatience of its restraints and its ideas, and indifference to its lessons, have accompanied the frontier. What the athens vs sparta, Mediterranean Sea was to the Greeks, breaking the bond of custom, offering new experiences, calling out new institutions and activities, that, and more, the ever retreating frontier has been to the United States directly, and to the nations of Europe more remotely. And now, four centuries from the discovery of America, at the end of a hundred years of life under the Constitution, the frontier has gone, and with its going has closed the first period of American history. Reprinted from Annals of America 1968, 1976 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 1. Uk! How does Turner explain the recurring need for communication and transportation along the American frontier?

2. How does Turner connect the ingenuity of the American frontiersmen with the ever-present influence of nature? 3. What does Turner foreshadow about diversity and the character of the American identity?