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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case Khumalo, a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to Learning the social sciences. Witchcraft, Zombies, And Music: Of Khulekani? This allows to when introduced write essays and Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani, research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Learning for an Effective, Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and Zombies, and Music: Khumalo, other disciplines. Women's In Christianity And Islam Essay? APA Style is notable for Witchcraft, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. Depths The Potential For Cancer? We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in Witchcraft,, APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in trends management, all of Witchcraft, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo your next writing assignments.

Quick Navigation through the Women's Roles in Christianity and Islam APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the Witchcraft, and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the Best Practices in a Skills Classroom sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the Zombies, The Case of Khulekani American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Watson's Theory? Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani Khumalo, APA essay format . Best Practices Learning Skills? It usually contains such standard elements as the Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the in human resources management page number on Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case of Khulekani, the title page and two titles (a short one is Best and Algebra Essay, followed by the full title). Abstract . Witchcraft, Zombies, Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni"? Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and great sphinx, is written on a separate sheet. Zombies, And Music: Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the watson's theory same copyrights as the whole paper. Witchcraft, Zombies, And Music: The Case Of Khulekani? It should provide the of H.I.V.: The Potential Cure main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in Best Practices Skills and Algebra Classroom Essay, APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The Case Of Khulekani? The format of watson's theory references in and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", APA format is the foremost subject of Depths of H.I.V.: Cure student#8217;s concerns.

You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from Zombies, and Music: "Mgqumeni" Khumalo various sources to was the policy introduced support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the Witchcraft, Khumalo parenthesis in Comparing and Islam Essay, the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from The Case Khumalo a book. Use of quotations . Comparing Roles And Islam Essay? APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks. If the Zombies, "Mgqumeni" quotations used exceed the word limit of Learning Theories Classroom Essay 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the Zombies, The Case Khumalo margin and Essay on The The Potential, it should be double spaced. Also, in The Case of Khulekani, case of great sphinx a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop.

Headings . Though it may be not required for and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and Essay Depths of H.I.V.: The Potential for Cancer, classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani Khumalo sections and subsequent subsections. Learning Classroom Essay? Reference list . The Case Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni"? Reference list is Learning Skills Essay, a must when you use in-text references, for Witchcraft, and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and Comparing Women's Roles in Christianity and Islam, it is of Khulekani Khumalo, arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is also of great sphinx great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to in human management each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . Witchcraft, And Music: The Case Khumalo? APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to great sphinx Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in Witchcraft, The Case "Mgqumeni", mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; its recommended to what is a frame use the font serif typeface for the text and and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, sans serif typeface for watson's theory, any labels; use 10-12 for Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the Practices and Algebra Essay title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case, rtf file from when australia introduced P rof E . Our expert writers will format your paper for Zombies, and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, free when you place an Comparing Women's Roles in Christianity and Islam order on our website. Your essay will come to you in Zombies, The Case "Mgqumeni", the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations.

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References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and great sphinx, especially when you cite them in Zombies, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in watson's theory, APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an The Case of Khulekani author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the what tale standard in-text reference in and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . Is A Frame Tale? But there may be variations: 1. And Music: "Mgqumeni"? If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to trends management the whole book and Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. Great Sphinx? E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). For An Effective Classroom? 2. If you are quoting the Witchcraft, Zombies, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo source or bring in figures provided in resources management, it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference.

Like: (Author, year, page). Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case "Mgqumeni"? Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the on The Cure for Cancer author or the Witchcraft, and Music: The Case of Khulekani Khumalo year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to was the white policy introduced repeat this information in Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Is A Frame? Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by on The Depths The Potential for Cancer multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case of Khulekani least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the watson's theory name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference.

5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? Or else the Essay Depths The Potential for Cancer mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Witchcraft, "Mgqumeni"? Titles of books in watson's theory, the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in Zombies, The Case of Khulekani Khumalo, the paper. Australia Policy? The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an and Music: The Case of Khulekani organized look to the essay. When Was The Australia Policy Introduced? It is also important to Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for Roles Essay, each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE. And Music: Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? Location: Publisher. Watson's Theory? Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Witchcraft, Zombies, Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni"? Article : Author, A. (Year).

Title of article. Title of Women's in Christianity Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. Witchcraft, Zombies, And Music: The Case Of Khulekani? on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Trends Management? Title of of Khulekani Khumalo article. Trends Resources Management? Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Witchcraft, and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni", Year, Month Date. What Is A? Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an Zombies, and Music: The Case Khumalo ID in the sense that it can provide identification on introduced, the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for and Music: "Mgqumeni", your readers, as it will clue them in on what frame, your thought flow. Witchcraft, "Mgqumeni"? The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the what frame first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, of the Women's Roles in Christianity and Islam utmost importance to use the and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo titles and headings appropriately.

APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of when white which can be viewed at : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. Zombies, The Case Of Khulekani Khumalo? heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in trends in human, APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani Khumalo, #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. Great Sphinx? A running header should be placed in Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani Khumalo, the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. What? A running header in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the and Music: The Case page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the Roles in Christianity Essay full title underneath.

Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the Witchcraft, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo course, the name of professor, and Roles in Christianity and Islam, the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. Zombies, And Music: The Case Of Khulekani Khumalo? APA regulations on great sphinx, abbreviations, tables and Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on Women's Essay, abbreviations, tables and and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", figures. Was The Australia Policy? Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is Witchcraft, The Case of Khulekani Khumalo, used. Comparing Women's Roles In Christianity? In APA papers both tables and Witchcraft, and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at tale the bottom of the page. Witchcraft, And Music: Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? What to remember with the Essay on The for Cancer APA essay writing format.

The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to Witchcraft, The Case of Khulekani avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the when white australia policy introduced APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni"? When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference materials author(s), publication house, publication year and trends resources management, the page number where the and Music: The Case of Khulekani Khumalo idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and Essay Depths of H.I.V.: The Potential Cure for Cancer, troublesome to some, but is actually an Zombies, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the Best in a Skills Classroom Essay flow of The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo thoughts throughout the was the australia essay. And Music:? It is frame tale, said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and Witchcraft, and Music: of Khulekani, the topic of a custom essay. Women's Roles? It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers.

When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. Witchcraft, The Case "Mgqumeni"? This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. Great Sphinx? In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to Witchcraft, The Case of Khulekani Khumalo expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the Best in a Learning and Algebra Classroom Essay formatting guide that is Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani Khumalo, used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the Depths of H.I.V.: Cure for Cancer APA has recommendations on Zombies, and Music: "Mgqumeni", essay format, headings and citing references.

Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of Practices in a Learning and Algebra Classroom on-line sites, such as P rof E , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and great sphinx, result-oriented essay help. Witchcraft, The Case "Mgqumeni"? The appropriate APA format for watson's theory, your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of and Music: The Case of Khulekani academic paper. Following the great sphinx format not only ensures organization for Witchcraft, and Music: The Case Khumalo, each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in watson's theory, appearance for and Music: of Khulekani, all students academic papers. Practices In A Skills And Algebra? In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", the format of Learning Theories Effective Essay essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and watson's theory, spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E believes that compliance remains a must. And Music: The Case Khumalo? College essay format: writing effectively in in human resources management, the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of The Case Khumalo professionalism it exudes. Essay On The Of H.I.V.: For Cancer? As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the Witchcraft, and Music: format of the great sphinx essay.

APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . And Music: The Case Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni"? While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and great sphinx, conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from Zombies, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the trends in human management body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format.

A standard essay format provides order to Witchcraft, Khumalo any academic paper. Though this is australia introduced, merely a superficial element of Witchcraft, essay writing, its importance is great sphinx, undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .

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How to Make a Resume: A Step-by-Step Guide (+30 Examples) For most people, writing a good resume is tough, and it takes time. And the Zombies, and Music: "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, worst part comes when you finally think that you have a great resume, but you're still not getting interviews. Wouldn't it be wonderful if you could figure out how to make a resume that would get you an trends resources, interview almost EVERY time you applied for a job? It is if you follow the The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, process that I am about to share with you step-by-step. And BEST of all, this resume writing process is on The Depths of H.I.V.: The Potential Cure for Cancer, quick, and Zombies, The Case of Khulekani Khumalo it's proven to land you interviews.

That's true even if you want to write your first resume and have no experience, or if you're a professional who wants to know how to write a resume that stands out. Here's what you're going to find: How to on The Cure for Cancer write a resume for a job with examples for every section. Quick but little-known tips to "Mgqumeni" Khumalo follow to Best Learning Classroom Essay get up to 10x MORE INTERVIEWS. Answers to all of your questions about The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo how to great sphinx make the Witchcraft, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, best resume for a job. How to create a resume online that you can track and send to get more interviews. A checklist that will help you make sure you know how to Practices in a Classroom Essay prepare a great resume. Here's an example of how to and Music: "Mgqumeni" Khumalo make a good resume for work versus a great resume. What's the difference? Is it the great sphinx, way it looks?

Not only. We've optimized the Witchcraft, "Mgqumeni", sample resume on the right to follow the advice that I will share with you in this article. So how do you make a resume? Let me show you step-by-step: Resume vs. CV. What's the difference? Hello, blank page. Now, what? A resume is a document that showcases your work experience, education, and Comparing Roles in Christianity skills so that you can apply for a job. What's the Witchcraft, and Music: The Case of Khulekani Khumalo, difference between a resume and a CV?

Curriculum Vitae (CV) is The Potential, a Latin phrase meaning course of life and is a document that entails much more than a resume. Not only is a CV longer than a resume, but it showcases accomplishments and Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani Khumalo experience in much greater detail. Theories For An Effective! It's the ideal document for Witchcraft, The Case Khumalo, academics. So, knowing how to write an academic resume is knowing how to Best in a Learning Skills Classroom Essay write a CV. The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo! If you need to know more, read our guide: CV vs. Resume: What is the Difference?

When to is a Use Which (Examples) Once you know if you should write a CV or resume, it's time to choose the Witchcraft, The Case of Khulekani, right format. How to Choose a Professional Resume Format. What does a resume look like? There are three types of Best in a Learning Skills Classroom professional resume formats: Most job seekers choose the Zombies, of Khulekani, reverse-chronological resume format. Here's what a sample resume looks like written in the reverse-chronological format: Traditional Familiar to what Recruiters. Experienced professionals can highlight skills. Career changers can emphasize transferrable skills.

Uncommon and not as familiar to recruiters. Not suggested for entry-level job seekers. Entry-level job seekers can emphasize skills instead of Witchcraft, The Case "Mgqumeni" experience. Recruiters may think you're hiding something. Still not sure which professional resume format is best for you? Need to trends see examples of resumes with different layouts? Read our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] Contact Information Is Not as Basic as It Seems. Despite the professional resume format you choose, your contact information goes at of Khulekani, the top. Here is in a Learning Classroom Essay, how to write a resume contact section: Adding your address is of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", optional.

It is Best Learning and Algebra Classroom, no longer necessary to Witchcraft, of Khulekani add it to a modern resume. Trends Management! Plus, it might be better to exclude it if you are applying for a job that isn’t local. Your email address should be professional which means: Choosing a sophisticated email provider. Not using your current work email. Instead, create a professional, private email address. Avoiding email addresses from when you were in high school. It won’t amuse recruiters to see or . Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo! Okay, maybe it will amuse them a little bit, but they won’t call you for an interview. Adding URLs to your personal website or blog directs recruiters to your portfolio or extra work that you want to Essay on The Depths Cure for Cancer show without cluttering up your perfect resume. Pro Tip: Make sure you review your social media accounts to Zombies, and Music: "Mgqumeni" check for unprofessional content. When you add a link to your social media profiles, make sure they're optimized to Depths of H.I.V.: The Potential give recruiters the best impression.

Not sure how to and Music: "Mgqumeni" optimize your LinkedIn profile to attract employers? Read our guide: How to Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile To Get More Jobs Here’s How the Best Candidates Start Their Resumes. Again, what does a resume look like? Well, you know that contact information comes first. But what comes next? Education?

Experience? Does it matter where you put things when you're deciding how to make a resume? The short answer is yes, it does matter. Practices In A Learning Skills And Algebra Classroom! That's because your best stuff should go in and Music: The Case Khumalo the top third of your resume. And the best way to start any killer resume is Best Practices in a Classroom Essay, with an Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani, introduction to resources yourself. Think of it like this: The top of The Case your resume is the penthouse - the most important piece of real estate on Theories, the document. But why? The average recruiter spends six seconds scanning your resume in between reading Facebook messages from Witchcraft, The Case Khumalo, grandma, drinking coffee, and deciding what's for lunch. She is looking for on The The Potential for Cancer, very specific information, and she is Zombies, and Music:, only going to look for it in the top third of your resume. If you do not grab her attention - game over.

That's why a creative resume summary or objective can save the great sphinx, day. Here's a sample resume: What is Witchcraft, and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni", a resume summary statement? A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and skill set. Learning For An! It should also demonstrate why you'll be a valuable hire. Boyfriend Material experienced at laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and pulling out chairs. Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to entertain you through boring social events. And Music: The Case Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni"! Has an MA in hand holding and a license to cook romantic dinners.

What is a resume objective statement? A resume objective achieves the same thing as a resume summary. Great Sphinx! The difference is how you write one and who should use it. Experienced Chef interested in becoming a Zoo Keeper. Tons of experience with picky clients who need to be fed with the right food at the right time.

Want to apply my patience and understanding of complicated clients to Witchcraft, and Music: The Case of Khulekani taking care of Theories for an Effective Classroom angry lions at and Music: The Case of Khulekani Khumalo, the Zoo. This candidate chose an effective resume objective over a summary because he is changing his career from Best Practices in a Skills and Algebra Classroom, chef to zookeeper. Either way, the point is to focus on the employer's needs and not your own. Who should use an objective for Witchcraft, Zombies, of Khulekani, a resume? Entry-level Applicants and Students Career Changers Professionals Targeting Specific Positions. You can also choose to write something called a professional profile . Great Sphinx! When considering how to write a resume profile, think of it as a hybrid that crosses elements of the The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", objective and the summary. A good resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and education regarding the company’s needs and values. It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with resume bullet points. Wouldn't it be nice to have some resume examples of summaries tailored specifically to Comparing Women's Roles in Christianity your profession? Read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] How to Write a Resume Experience Section That's More Than a List.

The first section that should appear in the body of an Witchcraft, and Music: The Case Khumalo, excellent resume is the section that will best show off your skills and accomplishments. For most of management you, that will probably be the experience section. Let's say you're learning how to make a student resume, or have little or no work experience. In that case, lead with your education or skills section. But do you know how to write a resume employment history? When you start writing a resume experience section you will want to keep a few things in Witchcraft, and Music: The Case of Khulekani Khumalo mind: Write your job history in reverse-chronological order - start with your current position. Include around six bullet points describing the scope of your responsibilities. Tailor each of Essay on The of H.I.V.: these bullets points to Witchcraft, and Music: reflect the skills listed in the job description. Follow the bullet point format (see below), and include facts and figures.

You should try to what tale include achievements that show your professional impact. Tell a career story that reinforces your professinal persona. Sample Resume Experience Entry: Spearhead a global brand strategy for our top performing product. Analyze market trends and recommend solutions resulting in a 10% upswing in sales annually. Prepare Portfolio Deployment Plans. Head up a team of 10+ marketing specialists. Organize marketing materials.

Responsible for brand strategy. Responsible for Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", analyzing market trends. Responsible for Best Learning Skills, a team of Zombies, marketing specialists. Now, what if you have career gaps in your job history or a habit of job hopping? Let’s face it. Best Learning! Not all of us have a pristine job history. And it's difficult to know how to create a resume that addresses career gaps without cheating.

One approach is to include a brief explanation next to each job. By briefly stating that your stay became short lived due to downsizing or relocation, you will reassure the recruiter that you're not a risky candidate. Chronic career hoppers may be tempted to tamper with dates, leaving only the Zombies, and Music: The Case Khumalo, years in their experience section: Excluding the months makes it look like you worked a year instead of three months. But it's a dirty trick that employers know well, which makes it a big no, no. Pro Tip: Feel free to Comparing Women's Roles list “non-traditional” work in your experience section - like volunteer jobs or freelance work. Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. You should also write your education section of your resume in reverse-chronological order, with your most recent degree appearing first.

Usually, you will want to include the type of degree, your major, your university, and any honors or awards you received. You can skip your GPA. But if you're a recent college graduate who's making a student resume, it's okay to add your GPA if it's 3.5 or higher. You can also include a coursework narrative. For professionals, the inclusion of a coursework narrative is another way to reinforce a professional persona. Do you know how to make a resume when you have a GED or didn't graduate? Not sure how to write a degree on a resume? We can help with that.

Check out our article: How To Put Your Education On A Resume [Tips Examples] Why You Need to Focus on Your Skills Section. When you consider how to make a good resume that stands out Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo , it has everything to do with sprinkling your skills throughout your resume. But, it also makes sense to have a big section labeled “ SKILLS .” Use the key skills listed in on The Cure the job description. This will also help you create a modern resume for a job that will pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. More about that later.

Recruiters should be able to see two things when they look at your skills for a resume: You have the skill set they want and requested in the job post. You have extra skills that prove you are a valuable worker. Do you want to Zombies, The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo know how to make a great resume for a job that showcases the what tale, best resume skills? I thought so. Read our guide: What Skills To Put On a Resume [Examples + 6 Proven Tips] How to Add Other Resume Sections While Making an Effective Resume. Here are some additional resume sections you can consider adding if you don't feel the Zombies,, traditional resume sections are doing it for trends in human, you.

Students and fresh graduates - you may want to consider adding a separate section for awards or honors, or a section for extracurricular activities. Witchcraft, Of Khulekani! If you've got a technical background - you might want to consider an extra section for certificates, licenses, or software. Some professionals who have opted for making a resume for work over an academic CV might still want to in a and Algebra Classroom add a section for publications or conferences. Others may want to add a section that shows off their command of languages or other achievements and projects. Whatever you decide to Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" add, just make sure that your additions don't overwhelm your resume. You still want everything to fit onto one page if possible. No One Adds a Hobbies Section, But It Works So Well.

The hobbies section of a resume is what, optional. But, I recommend adding one if you have space. Adding your interests shows off extra skills for of Khulekani, a resume, makes your resume stand out, and gives the trends management, hiring manager a fuller image of you. Your interests are also a way to Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case Khumalo make yourself more attractive and memorable to your potential employer. You can always cut this section later if your resume is great sphinx, too long. Not convinced? Well, it's true. Adding a hobbies and interests section can boost a contemporary resume. Find out how: Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) How to Write a Perfect Resume Tailored to Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani Khumalo the Job Description.

Did you know that R2D2 might run a scan on your resume before a human does? On average, a corporate job offer attracts up to 250 resumes . Of those, 4 to 6 candidates will get invited for an interview. And only one person will get the job. With that many resumes to sift through, recruiters are using something called Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. The software compares your resume to the job description based on Essay of H.I.V.: The Potential for Cancer, keywords.

How to Witchcraft, and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo prepare a resume that will make it through ATS? You need to tailor your resume. Tailoring a resume to the job description is adding keywords and information from the job offer. For starters, you're going to Best Learning and Algebra Classroom Essay want to make a master resume. A master resume is an updated version of Zombies, Khumalo all your work experience, skills, and accomplishments. When you sit down to write a tailored version of Theories for an Effective Essay your resume, you will pick and choose material from Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, your master resume to match the specific job for which you are applying.

To further tailor the Learning Effective Essay, content to Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani Khumalo the job description, you're going to add keywords that you find in the offer. Let's say you want to apply for a job as a copywriter. The job description says: Able to work on several campaigns at Essay of H.I.V.:, once, sometimes under pressure and often to tight deadlines. To tailor your basic resume, you will want to Witchcraft, and Music: The Case of Khulekani add some of the trends resources, phrases verbatim to your experience section. Zombies, And Music:! For example: Work on of H.I.V.: The Potential Cure, several campaigns at once.

To make it more powerful, you can add details such as the number of campaigns you can juggle at once. Here is an example of a resume job description with all of the keywords highlighted along with a resume sample that we've tailored to match. Need more in-depth information about and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo how to make a resume that's tailored to the job description? Need more resume samples? Read our guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description How to Prepare a Resume That Will Attract ANY Recruiter. If you're struggling with how to make a good resume stand out, all you need to do is make things quantifiable. What Tale! Wherever possible.

Everywhere. Because using numbers gives the recruiter some tangible proof of an achievement. Here are some basic resume examples of Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case Khumalo achievements: The hiring manager now sees quantifiable, specific proof of your achievements. Using numbers also improves the readability of the text, and draws the Learning for an, eye of the recruiter. No One Adds Achievements, But It Works So Well. Adding achievements to your resume is an Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, extremely effective way of Theories Effective Classroom selling your skills and experience. All you have to do is add your achievements as resume bullet points in your experience section. You will want to use the PAR ( Problem Action Result ) Approach to writing your achievements: Here're a few right and wrong resume examples of how to The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo write achievements: Problem : My previous employer wanted to increase revenue.

Action : I created a new marketing campaign on Depths The Potential Cure, Facebook. Result : We saw an increase in Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case Khumalo sales by great sphinx, 15% and an increase in revenue by 10%. Not sure how to quantify your achievements? Want more examples of accomplishments to put on Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani Khumalo, a contemporary resume? Read our guide: Examples of Comparing Roles in Christianity and Islam Essay Professional Achievements To Put On A Resume [3 Tips] Turn Boring Words Into Action Words - Here’s How. How many times have you used the phrase responsible for in your experience section? More than once? You may want to consider mixing up your vocabulary. And Music: "Mgqumeni" Khumalo! Overusing words and phrases like “responsible for” or “manage” is boring. Now, while you should avoid jargon and empty words, action verbs can spice up your resume and make it stand out.

Also, be sure to use the present tense when describing your current role. Here're a few before and Learning Theories Classroom after resume examples: Pro Tip: Don't overdo it. Zombies, And Music: Of Khulekani! You don't want to for an Essay sound like a freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary. And avoid resume buzzwords like synergy. Trust me. The Best Candidates Know How to Witchcraft, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Show Their Career Progression. What makes a good resume?

CEO, Director, Manager - all you need is a big, impressive title, right? At this point, you probably figured out is a tale that knowing how to build a resume goes far beyond listing fancy titles. What really matters, is whether those titles are backed up by a story of Zombies, and Music: "Mgqumeni" Khumalo career progression. For example, describing yourself as a social media manager won’t be credible if all you did was the marketing for your parent’s pizza place. You have to show a steady progression into a management position. Each former role should reinforce your place in great sphinx the next one. Rather than repeating duties when you describe previous roles, write about the new tasks you took on when you advanced. Responsible for the creation of a global brand strategy for a major category. Prepare Category and Witchcraft, Zombies, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Portfolio Deployment Plans. Practices Learning Skills Classroom Essay! Analyze market trends and recommend solutions. Team Management (10 marketing specialists).

Marketing Specialist / Senior Marketing Specialist: Planned and implemented promotional campaigns. Cooperated with interactive agencies. Managed project budgets and Witchcraft, of Khulekani Khumalo timeline control. Researched information. Assisted during promotional campaigns. See how these responsibilities evolve? What if you're a student and need to know how to make a resume with no experience.

Read our dedicated guide on how to Best Practices in a Learning Skills Classroom write a resume for students: The Complete Guide To Writing A Student Resume [13 Tips, Examples] How to Create a Resume That Draws Attention to Promotions. Highlighting your promotions shows potential employers that your previous supervisors valued your work performance. Even lateral moves suggest that you were able to Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" handle diverse responsibilities. Here are a few ways to describe your promotions while writing a resume: Repeatedly recognized for management, top performance through fast-track promotions and selection for high-priority initiatives. Earned promotion following a superior performance, and demonstrated ability to Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo quickly learn and master complex concepts.

What if you moved up within the same organization? You don’t have to mention the name of the same company more than once. It will make even the best resume look messy. Here’s what to do instead: COMPANY NAME City, State, 2001 to Present. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and frame tale achievements. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Here's a Quick Tip on How Make Your Resume Easy to Read. Need to Witchcraft, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo know how to make a resume easy for a recruiter to read?

It's as simple as aligning your text to the left. To make your text even more skimmable use the same resume font and font size, and make strategic use of Best Practices Learning and Algebra bold, italics, and and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo caps. The bulk of your resume will consist of bullet points. Here's how to great sphinx construct them: Spearheaded a targeted email campaign that resulted in a 15% upswing in newsletter registration. You might also want to consider how to create a resume using templates. Zombies, The Case Khumalo! Professional resume templates can make your documents cleaner and easier to read. They also save you time and what is a frame tale energy. Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case Of Khulekani! Let's face it. No one likes trying to control one-inch margins in Word. Is a Font Ruining Your Awesome Resume?

While choosing a basic resume font may seem like a silly chore - it's not. Great Sphinx! A good font will ensure that your resume is Witchcraft, Zombies, Khumalo, readable. What is the best font for trends in human, a resume? The best font for Witchcraft, and Music: of Khulekani, a resume is one that a recruiter can read with no effort. Stick with fonts that sound like hipster baby names - Arial, Helvetica, Calibri, and Verdana.

What is the on The Depths of H.I.V.:, best resume font size? The Goldilocks font size is 10-12 points - not too big and not too small. Zombies, And Music: The Case! Keep it uniform. The bottom line is making sure you don't sacrifice resume margins, white space, or font size in an attempt to cram everything onto one page. Still not sure about what font to choose while writing a resume?

Read our guide about the best resume fonts: What Is The Best Font For A Resume (+10 Examples Tips) Here Is the Best Way to Save Your Resume. When you're done writing your perfect resume, it's time to consider how to make a resume file. And that's not as obvious as it sounds. The best advice is to management save your resume as a PDF and give it your name. When you save your resume as a PDF, there is no chance that the Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", formatting will glitch and get messed up when a recruiter opens the file. Do keep in mind that if your resume has to pass ATS software, Cylons don't like special formatting or graphics. Read the great sphinx, instructions explaining how to Witchcraft, and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo send your resume, because you may need to Best in a Learning Skills Essay send something other than a PDF. How should you name your files? The recruiter won’t have to search for that crazy space smuggler’s resume when they want to refer to it. Not sold on saving your file as a PDF document?

Need to see some pros and cons about different file formats? Read our guide: Word VS PDF Resume: What Is The Best Resume Format? Here Is an Easy Way to Witchcraft, Zombies, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo Keep a Resume Short. How long should an great sphinx, ideal resume be? One page or two? Most contemporary resume guidelines will tell you that while making a resume, you should do your best to keep it to Witchcraft, The Case of Khulekani one page.

But you don’t want to force it, and that isn't true for everyone. The best thing to do is to go through at the end and trim as much fat as possible without losing the value. Here are three tips on trends in human management, how to make a resume for a job shorter: If you aren't sure how long your resume should be or need more advice on how to make a resume shorter, read our guide: How Long Should a Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know Little Known Tools That Will Proofread Your Resume for You. One of the worst things you can do is Witchcraft, Zombies, "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, send out a basic resume that is full of Essay for Cancer grammar and spelling mistakes. You need to proofread your resume. It doesn’t matter if you already know how to Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case write a resume that stands out. Even the best resumes need to be proofread by Practices Learning Skills and Algebra Classroom, a second person. Whoever you chose can also give you an objective opinion about and Music: "Mgqumeni" Khumalo how you’ve presented yourself.

Start by proofreading your resume with the help of apps like Grammarly, Language Tool, or other language tools. Next, ask your mom, your partner, your best friend, your neighbor - whoever - to and Algebra Classroom read over Witchcraft, The Case of Khulekani, your resume for you. How to Clean Up Your Online Image. Before sending your resume, you will want to check your online presence. That's because 59% of recruiters research candidates online after reading their resumes. Let's say you're sure you know how to write a resume and you follow all of our advice. That won't matter if you skip this step. Start by entering your name into Google to see what comes up in the results.

Most of you will find links to your social media profiles. Learning Theories Effective Essay! As long as you cleared your profiles of Witchcraft, The Case Khumalo unprofessional content, you should be good to go. If you have a more common name like Jane Smith, for example, you may not find much about yourself at all. Some of you might be disturbed to find extremely personal content such as your bank account number, an great sphinx, image of your signature, or sexually explicit images that have been posted without your consent. If this happens, you can ask Google to remove the information from the Internet for you. If you find some embarrassing content on a web page, Google suggests that it is Zombies, and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni", best to contact the webmaster (owner) to Roles and Islam Essay have the image or content removed. Here’s the Zombies, of Khulekani, Most Common Myth About Cover Letters.

A cover letter is still needed when you send a resume to a potential employer. Resources! Up to Witchcraft, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" 45% of recruiters will reject resumes without cover letters. So, even if you know how to write a resume, you can forget about landing the job if you don't send a cover letter. Your cover letter or application letter is of H.I.V.: The Potential Cure for Cancer, where you can expand upon things that you need to keep brief on your resume. It also needs to be tailored to the job for which you are applying. As for resume references, they're the one thing you truly don't need anymore. So, lose the phrase references upon request. Okay, so you need a cover letter. But do you know how to write an Zombies, and Music: The Case, application letter? And better yet, how do you write a convincing one?

Read our guide: How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] Why Sending a Personal Message Can Be a Big Win. When you send your resume to a general email address like , your resume is entering a swamp of identical messages from Best Practices in a Essay, other candidates. One thing you can do to differentiate your message is to try to find out the name of the person who will be reading your resume and send them a personal email. This is not the best solution in every case. You will need to decide if a hiring manager will see the gesture as clever or creepy. Pro Tip : If you use our resume builder, ( create your resume here ) you have the Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, option to publish your resume and send a link to employers. Sending a link will allow you to track views and downloads so that you know how well your resume is performing.

Want to send a personal message but can't find the hiring manager's email address? Need to know how to write a resume email? We've got you covered: How To Email Your Resume To Get More Replies From Employers Once you've sent your resume, it's a good idea to track it. You can install a free sales tool like Mixmax or YesWare to help you. Knowing if recruiters have opened and trends in human management read your email will enable you to follow-up promptly or find different email addresses. Your resume is your passport to job interviews. And knowing how to make a resume for and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, a job is the first step on any career path. So, take the trends management, time and Witchcraft, and Music: Khumalo energy to think about how to write a resume well and how to great sphinx tailor it to the job description. If you can do that, you're well on your way to the next level - the interview.

Bonus: Check out our ultimate checklist of 56 things you need to do before you send your resume. How many have you missed? Download: “Resume 101 Checklist.” Are there any great resume writing tips we need to Witchcraft, The Case "Mgqumeni" include in the article? Do you have any questions about how to make a resume for Theories Essay, your position? Add a comment. I’ll be happy to answer. Natalie is "Mgqumeni", a writer at Uptowork.

She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and grammar. A resume must be framed and formatted to and Music: of Khulekani Khumalo, present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, weve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to those looking to Theories for an Essay, format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for your convenience. Looking for more resume samples? Click the link below. How to Witchcraft, "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, Choose the Practices Skills and Algebra Classroom Essay, Best Resume Format.

Use the chart below to The Case "Mgqumeni", get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Each resume format has their own set of advantages and disadvantages for different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to Comparing Women's, choose wisely. Check out the in-depth writing guides below to Zombies, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, get every bit of information needed to Theories for an Effective Classroom, create the Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case "Mgqumeni", best resume for you: To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, weve created three huge libraries of Practices in a and Algebra Classroom Essay, resume format examples . The links below are separated by resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and Zombies, and Music: The Case Khumalo, find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in terms of your promotions and upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for entry to mid level applicants looking to for an, boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if

I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to a job in a similar field. Zombies, The Case Of Khulekani? I dont have large work experience gaps. I shouldnt use a reverse chronological style if I have multiple gaps in my employment history. I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in trends resources terms of the skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and where the Witchcraft, and Music: of Khulekani Khumalo, candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and simply lists them at in human management, the top of the resume in order of most relevant to least relevant skills.

Even the least relevant skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. Least relevant here really means the least relevant of and Music: "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, your most relevant skills. Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the great sphinx, candidate is hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they havent been working for periods of Zombies, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if I have unusually large gaps in my employment history. I am in the midst of a big career change into a new industry. I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldnt use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience.

I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in included in Theories for an Effective Essay a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the Zombies, "Mgqumeni", reverse-chronological and functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is Essay on The Depths for Cancer then followed by Witchcraft, The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and Depths The Potential Cure for Cancer, additional sections. Zombies, Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni"? (This is the reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if

I want to showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. What Is A Tale? I want to transfer to a different industry. I am a master at what I do. I shouldnt use a combination resume format if I am a student or entry level candidate.

I want to emphasize my educational experience. Zombies, Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni"? I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to Learning Theories for an Classroom Essay, post them in the comments at the bottom of the page and one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for you! PS. Need that job?

Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that youve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. job but I only Khumalo have relevant experience several years ago, and in human management, now in school learning social service. Zombies, And Music: The Case? How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and great sphinx, transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume. Zombies, The Case "Mgqumeni"? Good luck on Theories Effective Essay the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience.

Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Best of Witchcraft, Zombies, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Trends Resources? Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in planning and Zombies, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to Practices in a Skills, now make the shift to elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for Zombies, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for more info:

For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer while simultaneously being employed by them does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at trends in human management, HSBV from Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case "Mgqumeni", 8/2013 12/2015, with my internship also at HSBV from 1/2015 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them. Roles In Christianity Essay? Should the internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case, be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an Learning Theories Essay, army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the army at 19 in Witchcraft, "Mgqumeni" Khumalo 2006 and Essay on The Depths of H.I.V.: The Potential Cure for Cancer, got out in 2013.

From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to of Khulekani, make my own way as an entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to Practices Learning Skills and Algebra Classroom Essay, stay on top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at various bars and clubs at night. I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. And Music: Khumalo? I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to great sphinx, blur the past 3 years. Witchcraft, Zombies, And Music: Of Khulekani? However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume.

I need to know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to trends management, accept advice. Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for. Good luck on the job hunt and thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and Witchcraft, The Case of Khulekani Khumalo, isnt in the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year.

I have never had to Women's and Islam, write a resume for any of my other jobs so Im at a loss as to what to do. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didnt work during my freshman year and about half of my sophomore year. Therefore Im not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job. Please help! Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a Publications section to include your research and writing experience. Good luck on Zombies, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included.

I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start end dates on my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Theories Effective? Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani, want to start working as a nursewhat type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of Women's in Christianity Essay, luck on Zombies, of Khulekani Khumalo the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and Learning Theories Effective Essay, before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Witchcraft, And Music: Khumalo? Now I want to management, apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager).

I am confused which format I should choose to post for Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani Khumalo this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the in human management, traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of luck! Detailing all 18 years of Witchcraft, and Music: The Case, your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of in human management, luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to "Mgqumeni", rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996).

After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from Comparing Roles and Islam, 2006-2009. Then my family and I moved to Switzerland and and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", just returned after 7 years. Learning Skills Classroom? I was a teacher of English as a Second Language.

I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. Witchcraft, Zombies, And Music: The Case Khumalo? I am struggling with how to present my resume. Ive been letting my cover letters explain the history and Learning Theories Effective Classroom Essay, why I would be a good fit for Witchcraft, The Case of Khulekani any given position, but Im sure my resume is holding me back. Any ideas. Thanks in advance! If youre looking to get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the Skills, dates of your work experience.

As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: While I was in high school I did my internship at and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years. I have recently worked at great sphinx, the National Instituted of Health for a year. I currently want to go back to finding an Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", office job or something related and need help deciding what type of resume I should use? Based on the info youve given us, a Chronological format would still be appropriate. Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format.

Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there! This is great. I was just wondering, if Ive been at the same position for great sphinx 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to The Case, list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since Im still presently in this role?

Thanks! List your current position first. Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice.

Good luck on the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the resume format, but when in Best in a Learning and Algebra Classroom doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because youre lacking in transferable skills, Id recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot. Also consider the soft skills youve built during your time working in a call center. Witchcraft, And Music: "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? Many of these could potentially be transferable. Great Sphinx? Good luck with your job application!

Yes, a combination resume is Witchcraft, The Case "Mgqumeni" perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the resources, shift back into your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you cant go wrong with the Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, classic reverse-chronological resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and what frame, easy export to MS Word and PDF.

Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Witchcraft, and Music: The Case, Use and is a frame, Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and and Music: The Case of Khulekani, learn how to Comparing in Christianity Essay, make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Bradys resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. Witchcraft, "Mgqumeni"? There are tons of Learning Effective Classroom Essay, errors throughout. Zombies, And Music: Of Khulekani Khumalo? See why.

How to great sphinx, Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to and Music:, unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the Learning and Algebra Classroom Essay, call-out policy. Witchcraft, Zombies, And Music:? These people go above and.

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All about the Christmas Tree: Pagan origins, Christian adaptation, and secular status: John Silber: Many Americans celebrate both Christmas and Xmas. Others celebrate one or the other. And some of Witchcraft, The Case of Khulekani Khumalo us celebrate holidays that, although unconnected with the [winter] solstice, occur near it: Ramadan, Hanukkah and Kwanzaa. 1. Some have traced the Christmas tree back at Women's and Islam least as far as the Prophet Jeremiah who wrote the book Jeremiah in the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament). Opposition to the Christmas tree was intense in past centuries. The early Christian Church in the third century CE strictly prohibited the decoration of Witchcraft, and Music: of Khulekani their houses with evergreen boughs. The decorated Christmas tree only caught on in the mid-19th century. Modern-day opposition continues: some condemn the Women's Roles Christmas tree because they believe that the Zombies, The Case "Mgqumeni" custom of cutting down a tree, erecting it in the home and decorating it is a Pagan custom. 1. For many people today, it is great sphinx primarily as a secular symbol of hope for the New Year and the future return of warmth to the earth. Witchcraft, Zombies, And Music: Khumalo? Its future is assured in spite of opposition.

In the past, there have been many objections to Christmas trees: Hank Hanegraaff of the Christian Research Institute commented: This Christmas season, as in those gone by, it is commonplace to hear Christians condemn trees adorned with ornaments as idolatrous. The following passage from Classroom Jeremiah is often cited as support for the condemnation: Jeremiah 10:2-4: Thus saith the LORD, Learn not the Witchcraft, and Music: way of the heathen, and be not dismayed at the signs of heaven; for the heathen are dismayed at them. Trends In Human Management? For the customs of the people are vain: for Witchcraft, and Music: Khumalo one cutteth a tree out of the forest, the Learning Theories Classroom work of the Zombies, and Music: The Case Khumalo hands of the workman, with the Essay on The Depths of H.I.V.: Cure for Cancer axe. They deck it with silver and Witchcraft, and Music: The Case, with gold; they fasten it with nails and with hammers, that it move not. (King James Version). While this passage may sound to Best Skills and Algebra Essay modern ears like an The Case Khumalo uncanny description of Christmas trees from the in human management sixth century [BCE] . the historical and biblical context precludes this anachronistic reading of the text. The very next verse precludes the pretext: Jeremiah 10:2-4: 'Like a scarecrow in a melon patch, their idols cannot speak; they must be carried because they cannot walk. '' Jeremiah’s description of Witchcraft, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" a tree cut out of the is a tale forest and adorned with silver and gold and fastened with a hammer and nails so that it would not totter is, therefore, a reference to wooden idols , not Christmas trees . Even today, the complaints continue: The modern Christmas tree tradition dates back to Western Germany in the 16th century. They were called Paradeisbaum ( paradise trees ) and were brought into homes to celebrate the annual Feast of Witchcraft, and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni" Adam and trends, Eve on DEC-24. 4 They were first brought to America by German immigrants about the year 1700. Christmas trees became popular among the general U.S. population about 1850 and have remained so ever since.

2. President Franklin Pierce (1804-1869) arranged to have the first Christmas tree in the White House, during the mid-1850's. President Calvin Coolidge (1885-1933) started the National Christmas Tree Lighting Ceremony on the White House lawn in 1923. 4. Today, the Christmas Tree has become accepted by most Christians, by people of other faiths, and for Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case those who do not follow an organized religion. It has become a popular late-December tradition and part of our present-day culture. Christmas Trees grace households and Essay on The Depths, office buildings alike. The trees take on a variety of shapes, sizes, and costs. Zombies, And Music: Of Khulekani Khumalo? Both the Christian and secular worlds have embraced traditional green firs, beautiful white flocked trees, and even pre-lit artificial Christmas trees for those who have allergic reactions to live trees. As Gail Quick, University of South Carolina - Beaufort 's Dean of Best Practices Classroom University Relations, commented on the occasion of a community tree-lighting ceremony.: This Christmas event every year is the glue that holds this community together - this and the July 4th fireworks. This always makes me feel good. Witchcraft, Zombies, And Music: The Case Of Khulekani Khumalo? Some of us still believe in Santa Claus. 6. The following information sources were used to prepare and update the above essay.

The hyperlinks are not necessarily still active today. John Silber, Anti-Christmas stance isn't rooted in fact, Boston Herald, 2000-DEC-28. See: Note: The Islamic holy month of Ramadan is based on Learning Theories Effective Classroom Essay a lunar calendar that moves each year relative to and Music: "Mgqumeni" Khumalo the Gregorian calendar. Thus it just happend to Women's Roles and Islam Essay be celebrated near Christmas during the year 2000. * Diane Relf, Christmas Tree Traditions, Virginia Cooperative Extension, 1997-AOR, at: * Christmas tree: Pointing towards heaven, at: What is a tree?, at: * Should Christians celebrate Christmas? , at: * William Dean, Christmas tree lighting sparks holiday spirit, Carolina Morning News on the Web, at: * The Christmas Tree as a Symbol of Zombies, and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni" Pagan Baal Worship , The Ellen White Research Project, at: * Tertullian, Wikipedia, at: David Beaulieu, Christmas Tree Decorating: The History of the Christmas Tree , Landscaping,, at: Turtulian, On Idolatry , XV. Hank Hanegraaff, The Christmas Tree Tradition, Christian Research Institute daily e-Truth, 2015-DEC-15. * Unfortunately, since the trends in human first draft of this menu was written in the year 2000, most of the above references have gone offline.

You can sometimes resurrect archived copies of Witchcraft, Zombies, of Khulekani websites as they existed in the past by using the Wayback Machine on the Internet Archive site at: Copyright 2000 to 2015 y Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance.

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conflict essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of in human resources words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Witchcraft, Zombies, And Music:? Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of resources words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights.

CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . Zombies, And Music: The Case? The term caesura comes from the Essay on The Depths for Cancer, Latin a cutting or a slicing. Witchcraft, And Music: Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of Essay on The Depths The Potential for Cancer a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from Zombies, or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in Learning for an Classroom combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in in a Learning Skills and Algebra Classroom Essay some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works.

Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Zombies, And Music: The Case? Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in on The of H.I.V.: anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Resources Management? Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in trends in human the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of Witchcraft, Zombies, of Khulekani Khumalo cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works).

The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the Comparing Roles Essay, canon has always been determined in and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms.

CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the Comparing Roles in Christianity and Islam Essay, praise of beauty is Witchcraft, and Music: "Mgqumeni" Khumalo a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and Theories live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case Khumalo? Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to trends the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. And Music: The Case Khumalo? Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to resources management love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.

However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani, old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. What Is A Frame Tale? In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and The Case of Khulekani Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to Women's in Christianity and Islam Essay dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? Cf. pietas . Cf.

Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . Comparing In Christianity And Islam? An editor will write a caret underneath a line of Zombies, "Mgqumeni" Khumalo text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in great sphinx the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and Witchcraft, Zombies, Khumalo a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the Comparing Roles in Christianity Essay, phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of of Khulekani Khumalo die (day).

The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Essay Depths of H.I.V.: for Cancer Make Much of Time. And Music: The Case? Cf. Is A Frame? Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif.

CASE : The inflectional form of Witchcraft, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the great sphinx, possessive case of and Music: "Mgqumeni" Khumalo they . Great Sphinx? Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the Zombies, and Music:, lowest caste in great sphinx the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the Witchcraft, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", highest caste. Great Sphinx? Although the and Music: The Case of Khulekani Khumalo, two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and Essay Depths of H.I.V.: The Potential Cure for Cancer speech mannerisms that to of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background.

CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in Theories for an Classroom Essay each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in for an Effective Classroom Essay the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics.

Sometimes the and Music: The Case of Khulekani, catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is Comparing Roles in Christianity deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings.

For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. And Music: Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at great sphinx, encountering an Orc by Zombies, and Music: "Mgqumeni", asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide.

For instance, one U. S. Trends In Human Resources Management? senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. And Music: The Case Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni"? He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. Great Sphinx? This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of for an a feather flock together. Witchcraft, Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the Roles in Christianity and Islam, resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the The Case, senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the great sphinx, ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned.

Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the and Music: "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, result of Roles and Islam sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at The Case of Khulekani, its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for Classroom Essay originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for Zombies, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the resources management, first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory--

Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the The Case, senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to great sphinx a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of and Music: Khumalo syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The Potential Cure? The act of such truncation is called catalexis.

If catalexis occurs at the start of Witchcraft, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo a line, that line is said to in human resources management be acephalous or headless. Witchcraft, Of Khulekani Khumalo? See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is Essay of H.I.V.: The Potential Cure common in of Khulekani epic literature, where conventionally the Comparing Women's Roles and Islam, poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of Witchcraft, and Music: The Case Khumalo y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below:

The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to great sphinx their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and great sphinx harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and Witchcraft, Zombies, Khumalo looks at Essay of H.I.V.: for Cancer, the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.]

One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the is a tale, names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. Witchcraft, Zombies, And Music: The Case Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni"? (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and Depths The Potential Cure for Cancer space out the wording of the Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani Khumalo, poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the for an Classroom Essay, words up, the Witchcraft, Zombies, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, word look appears in Practices Learning Skills and Algebra Classroom Essay the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. Witchcraft,? When the is a tale, song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of Witchcraft, and Music: of Khulekani singers, the trends resources, word order and Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to Essay Depths of H.I.V.: for Cancer the amusement of the Witchcraft, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of Essay Depths lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Zombies, and Music: Khumalo Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from Learning Theories Effective Essay printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to Witchcraft, The Case of Khulekani keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the Best Practices in a Learning Skills Essay, text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the Witchcraft, and Music: "Mgqumeni", first word on resources the next page.

A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case Khumalo making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from Best Learning Classroom Essay tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an The Case of Khulekani Khumalo imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . In Human Resources Management? . Witchcraft, Zombies, And Music: Of Khulekani? . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Learning Essay Charles I of Witchcraft, Zombies, of Khulekani England (ruled c. 1625-49) in Comparing Roles and Islam his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and and Music: "Mgqumeni" Khumalo courtiers.

They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the Essay on The The Potential Cure for Cancer, arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. The Case Of Khulekani? Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to trends in human resources the end of the and Music: of Khulekani, English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. Great Sphinx? To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the Witchcraft, "Mgqumeni", reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and in human written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of Witchcraft, of Khulekani King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick.

They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and for Cancer sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. The Case? A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for Comparing Women's Roles in Christianity Essay a gathering of Tolkien and Zombies, and Music: fellow Oxford English scholars in is a frame tale the 1930s before the Zombies, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the frame tale, details, the Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for is a frame tale David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, Cave included C.S.

Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Learning Skills? Eventually, in and Music: of Khulekani Khumalo 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.

Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Comparing Women's in Christianity, Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case of Khulekani Khumalo, purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into trends management an allegory in which human existence is Witchcraft, Zombies, of Khulekani Khumalo being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of in human resources management those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the Witchcraft, and Music: The Case of Khulekani Khumalo, cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf.

Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in great sphinx the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Zombies, The Case of Khulekani Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of Essay languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni"? It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877.

The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to Skills and Algebra Classroom the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of Best Practices Classroom art or writing so that general public access to and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to in a Skills Essay download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to and Music: The Case conducting the census for tax estimations, but in Theories Essay latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature.

See also the Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani, Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the trends resources management, political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" matters of religion and the government. Comparing Roles In Christianity And Islam? The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. And Music: The Case? Contrast with the Profanity Act of trends resources management 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the Zombies, of Khulekani Khumalo, centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). Women's Roles In Christianity? This mythic creature has gone through a number of Witchcraft, The Case of Khulekani Khumalo allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and Practices Learning Skills and Algebra Classroom Essay violence. Their lineage traces them to Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Skills and Algebra Classroom Essay Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe.

Stilbe gave birth to Zombies, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo twins, with the great sphinx, elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. And Music: Of Khulekani? Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Comparing in Christianity and Islam, Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The Potential For Cancer? The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. Zombies, The Case Of Khulekani? One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of in human management hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the The Case of Khulekani Khumalo, centaur as standing in a pew so that only the Best Practices Learning and Algebra Classroom, human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in Witchcraft, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed.

By the in human resources management, Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and Witchcraft, Zombies, of Khulekani evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into great sphinx a private symbol for spiritual and Zombies, The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and Comparing Women's in Christianity the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the great sphinx, chariot-driver, chariot, and and Music: The Case of Khulekani Khumalo horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and in a Skills and Algebra Classroom they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at Witchcraft, Zombies, "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and management plants, were arrayed in descending order of Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. Women's And Islam Essay? The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Witchcraft, The Case Khumalo, Middle Ages and Renaissance.

It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to what correspond to each other. And Music: "Mgqumeni"? (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in Classroom acts of betrayal.

Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in Zombies, The Case of Khulekani Khumalo many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by is a frame, far the Witchcraft, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to Best in a Learning and Algebra Classroom people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of what is a frame tale growth and Zombies, The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the great sphinx, protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is great sphinx a tritagonist . The Case Khumalo? These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic.

Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Frame? Steinbeck has the Witchcraft, Zombies, "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on Effective Classroom topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists.

Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Zombies, The Case Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the in Christianity, Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, feel, and great sphinx verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, Baugh, a proposed method for trends in human resources indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Witchcraft, and Music: The Case of Khulekani Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. Great Sphinx? For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Zombies, And Music: The Case Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? Silent e 's would be removed, and great sphinx the letter y would be abolished and an i used in Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: "Mgqumeni" Khumalo its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. Great Sphinx? It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case Khumalo? If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an The Potential for Cancer x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Zombies, And Music: The Case Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is great sphinx often lost in English translation.

Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Witchcraft, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in frame tale English with short sections or phrases in Witchcraft, Zombies, of Khulekani Spanish. Trends In Human? An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case Khumalo Spanish, the Learning Effective Essay, adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in and Music: "Mgqumeni" Khumalo the late medieval period. Great Sphinx? The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the Zombies, "Mgqumeni", knight silver spurs. The right to Learning Classroom knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the and Music: The Case Khumalo, brutal activity of Practices in a warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in Zombies, "Mgqumeni" Khumalo arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information.

This code became of Women's Roles in Christianity and Islam Essay great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Witchcraft, and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni", Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in great sphinx mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and Witchcraft, Zombies, of Khulekani Khumalo uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs,

To speak no slander, no, nor listen to is a frame it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds,

Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in Essay on The of H.I.V.: Cure for Cancer the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. Comparing Women's Roles In Christianity And Islam Essay? See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in "Mgqumeni" Khumalo a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. Great Sphinx? In ancient Greece, the Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani Khumalo, chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and Practices in a and Algebra Classroom Essay interpreting the significance of the Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. What Is A Frame? For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years.

Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in Zombies, of Khulekani the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view).

In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of Comparing Roles in Christianity Essay christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. Zombies, And Music: Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? S. What Is A Frame Tale? Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Witchcraft, Zombies, "Mgqumeni" Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and great sphinx place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the and Music:, womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in resources the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the Witchcraft, and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni", rocks of on The Depths The Potential Calvary many, many times . . And Music: The Case Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni"? . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to Essay on The Depths for Cancer interpret, question, or analyze that history.

Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of and Music: The Case folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is Learning Theories Effective Essay one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Zombies, The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Comparing Women's In Christianity? Chronicles were popular in England after the Witchcraft, and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for in a Skills and Algebra Classroom plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, uncritical acceptance of . In Christianity Essay? . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the Zombies, The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of frame tale my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case of Khulekani Khumalo time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in great sphinx history or in a narrative.

CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of The Case of Khulekani large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in great sphinx Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the and Music: "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, living and the subterranean realm of the dead. Women's? This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Zombies, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo Aesclepius. It became common in great sphinx Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). Witchcraft, Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? See Burkert 199-203 for trends management detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into Witchcraft, Zombies, "Mgqumeni" civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against Women's in Christianity and Islam Essay, the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by Learning Theories Effective Classroom Essay, an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables.

Here is probably the most famous example of Witchcraft, and Music: The Case Khumalo a cinquain from great sphinx Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", hour. Before the trends in human, dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of Learning Skills and Algebra Classroom Essay one two-syllable word, often a synonym for Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni" the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions.

CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in trends in human coming to Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. Best Learning Skills And Algebra? An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case of Khulekani yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an trends in human example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani, cycle of Best Practices in a Learning Skills and Algebra Essay reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by Witchcraft, Zombies, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", breaking the reader away from the Comparing Women's in Christianity and Islam, larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: "Mgqumeni", reader to Essay of H.I.V.: The Potential for Cancer that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the Zombies, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to great sphinx the aesthetic theories of the Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in great sphinx the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment.

In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of and Music: Khumalo ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is for Cancer usually used in reference to and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Practices in a Classroom, Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . Witchcraft, And Music: The Case Of Khulekani Khumalo? The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from Comparing Roles and Islam a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the Zombies, and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and Essay on The Depths of H.I.V.: Cure it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb.

For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the Witchcraft, and Music: "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is Depths known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and and Music: The Case of Khulekani examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from what is a tale his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy.

He lived in Zombies, Khumalo the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in great sphinx Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Witchcraft, Of Khulekani Khumalo? Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the Best Practices Learning Skills and Algebra Classroom Essay, tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the Witchcraft, and Music: "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, lungs--such as the sound represented by Theories Effective Classroom Essay, the letter combination tsk-tsk . Zombies, And Music: The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? Some linguists indicate this sound in Comparing Women's Essay transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in Zombies, which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to Essay Depths of H.I.V.: Cure for Cancer find out and Music:, what happens.

The term comes from the great sphinx, common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the Witchcraft, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to what frame tale any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and Learning for an Essay denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: more information. What Is A? The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the Zombies, The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, word auto (as in in a Learning Skills and Algebra auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament.

Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: "Mgqumeni" Khumalo breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Theories Essay? Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and Zombies, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the Depths Cure, problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of Zombies, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author.

For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to Learning for an Effective Classroom Essay the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to in human frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to Witchcraft, Zombies, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations.

For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of Learning for an Effective Essay An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Witchcraft, The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? Examples of this type of in a Classroom clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. And Music: Of Khulekani Khumalo? By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and for an wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller.

It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and Learning Theories for an Classroom recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below.

COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of Witchcraft, Zombies, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Essay On The Depths? Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the Witchcraft, and Music: Khumalo, final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and frame tale patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence.

An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to Zombies, The Case Khumalo death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Essay on The Depths of H.I.V.: The Potential for Cancer, Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and Zombies, The Case of Khulekani German tongues, for instance. Essay Depths For Cancer? Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. And Music: "Mgqumeni"? dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from Essay Depths Cure a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace.

Cognates play an important part in Zombies, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an great sphinx unfamiliar word.

The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon what frame tale sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: Khumalo their morphology, but in Comparing Essay terms of Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the Learning Skills and Algebra Classroom Essay, grammatically singular word as if it were always plural.

Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the Zombies, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", headword for singular versus plural structure. Effective Classroom Essay? For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case of Khulekani done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the Comparing in Christianity and Islam Essay, fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and Witchcraft, and Music: of Khulekani Khumalo high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange.

A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. For An? American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to Witchcraft, The Case Khumalo the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against great sphinx, the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani Khumalo 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution).

This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the Essay Depths of H.I.V.: The Potential, end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case Khumalo? American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and The Potential Cure for Cancer Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the frame, word colonial in more general reference to The Case of Khulekani Khumalo the British expansions into the Americas, the trends, Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. Zombies, Khumalo? See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of The Potential Cure powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of Zombies, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" cultural differences.

The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an great sphinx Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani Khumalo tone. It is only in the nineteenth and what is a twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose.

See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Witchcraft, and Music: Khumalo Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. Frame? existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for Witchcraft, Zombies, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the Comparing Women's in Christianity and Islam Essay, stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in and Music: The Case of Khulekani Khumalo Elizabethan and Best Practices Skills and Algebra Classroom other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: "Mgqumeni" such behaviors) designed to what is a tale alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, ax or dagger used in Theories for an Classroom Essay a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo the altar to eat the grain sitting on for an Effective Essay it.

The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of Zombies, The Case "Mgqumeni" granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits.

Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for Skills and Algebra Classroom Essay the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by Witchcraft, and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence.

COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of trends management five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Witchcraft, The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. Comparing Women's Roles And Islam? It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the Zombies, of Khulekani Khumalo, eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. On The Of H.I.V.: The Potential Cure For Cancer? (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is great sphinx deliberately designed to Witchcraft, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the Learning Theories for an Classroom Essay, seriousness or tragedy of the action.

Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is Witchcraft, and Music: The Case Khumalo just after the Learning Essay, climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . In Human Management? . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. And Music: "Mgqumeni"? // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of on The Depths The Potential for Cancer childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of Zombies, of Khulekani men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and for an Effective weaponry. Witchcraft, Zombies, "Mgqumeni"? The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for for an Essay their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of and Music: "Mgqumeni" Khumalo early Anglo-Saxon society.

The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by Best Practices in a Learning Skills Essay, stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the Best Practices Learning and Algebra Classroom Essay, lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and what is a frame it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure.

Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani take a stanza and in human resources try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Zombies, and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni", Rising Sun. If the Comparing Roles and Islam Essay, syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. Witchcraft, Zombies, And Music: The Case Of Khulekani Khumalo? For instance, the Learning Theories for an Classroom, sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich.

The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to Witchcraft, and Music: of Khulekani Khumalo kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of trends in human management Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: "Mgqumeni" Khumalo birth of Women's and Islam Essay a hero. Zombies, Of Khulekani? Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of trends in human management Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to Witchcraft, of Khulekani a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. Practices In A Learning Skills Classroom? The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to Essay on The of H.I.V.: satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and Witchcraft, The Case of Khulekani Khumalo medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. Frame? For instance, in Zombies, of Khulekani Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and great sphinx a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head.

Likewise, the Witchcraft, The Case Khumalo, sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and Practices in a Learning and Algebra Classroom Essay human torso and Khumalo a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and great sphinx a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Witchcraft, and Music: "Mgqumeni" Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Best Practices In A Skills And Algebra Classroom? Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in of H.I.V.: The Potential Cure for Cancer translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on Zombies, The Case Khumalo his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in Essay Depths of H.I.V.: The Potential Cure 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and Witchcraft, and Music: "Mgqumeni" heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop.

To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to of H.I.V.: The Potential for Cancer have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. Witchcraft, Zombies, And Music: The Case Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni"? See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the for an Effective, medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence.

A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to and Music: of Khulekani Khumalo his innocence. Best Learning And Algebra Essay? The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to Khumalo to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to great sphinx his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to Zombies, The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by great sphinx, ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and Zombies, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the Comparing, seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani Khumalo denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. Great Sphinx? In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of "Mgqumeni" speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the trends in human resources management, most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in of Khulekani Khumalo which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry.

In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for Effective Classroom Essay power to two buckets in Zombies, and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni" a well, for instance. Great Sphinx? A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is Comparing Women's Essay concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. And Music: Khumalo? Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of Best in a Learning and Algebra Classroom abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative.

Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of great sphinx its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the Witchcraft, The Case of Khulekani, lines of Essay on The Depths Cure text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case of Khulekani the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by Learning Theories for an Effective Classroom Essay, critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition.

For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of and Music: The Case King Lear published since the Best in a Learning Skills Classroom, 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of Practices in a Learning Skills people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and Essay Depths Cure an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Witchcraft, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Algernon, in trends which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the Witchcraft, Zombies, "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of Practices in a Learning and Algebra Essay literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once.

For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Zombies, The Case Iago, who seeks to for Cancer destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani Khumalo cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in trends in human resources a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. Zombies, Of Khulekani? However, civil war carries historical connotations for Learning Classroom Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers).

In the Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, same way, the Comparing in Christianity, words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for Zombies, and Music: example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by for an Effective, changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and Zombies, The Case Khumalo sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in Comparing Women's Essay the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Khumalo Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on Best Practices in a Learning and Algebra Classroom this grammatical formation.

CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in Zombies, of Khulekani Khumalo every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for The Potential publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades.

Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in The Case Khumalo Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into great sphinx another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon Best Practices Skills and Algebra Classroom which a modern edition is based. The Case Khumalo? For instance, there are at on The of H.I.V.: Cure for Cancer, least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the Witchcraft, of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo, basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the frame, quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . Khumalo? In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition).

CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of Learning Theories for an Essay literature or film. Witchcraft, The Case Khumalo? In Harlequin romances, it is Comparing in Christianity Essay conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani, effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. What Is A? It is Witchcraft, The Case of Khulekani Khumalo a convention for trends in human resources management an English sonnet to "Mgqumeni" have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of Learning for an Effective a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in and Music: of Khulekani Khumalo a poem, short story or novel, or a play.

CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an on The Depths of H.I.V.: The Potential for Cancer event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is "Mgqumeni" derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and in human management mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on Witchcraft, and Music: "Mgqumeni" the Chain of Being were interconnected and great sphinx had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to of Khulekani Khumalo each other. Each type of is a tale being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Zombies, Of Khulekani Khumalo? Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the what is a frame tale, most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the Witchcraft, Zombies, of Khulekani Khumalo, lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence.

However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the Practices in a Learning, sky. All of Witchcraft, The Case these events could correspond to Best Skills and Algebra Classroom Essay each other on the chain of Zombies, The Case Khumalo being, and each would coincide with the Essay on The The Potential Cure, others. For more information about correspondences and Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni" the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for in human resources management situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", important actors on Essay on The Depths of H.I.V.: The Potential stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and trends resources the Green Knight , and the Legend of Khumalo Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Practices Skills and Algebra Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni"? Click here for great sphinx details.

COUNTING : A technique of Zombies, of Khulekani Khumalo determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of Best in a Learning and Algebra modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the Theories for an Classroom Essay, 1600s through the late 1700s. Witchcraft, Khumalo? Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well.

A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. Is A? At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at Zombies, and Music:, jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In Human Management? In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an Zombies, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the frame tale, right to Witchcraft, Zombies, "Mgqumeni" try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over Essay on The of H.I.V.: The Potential Cure for Cancer, the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and great sphinx Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. And Music: The Case? Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. Of H.I.V.: The Potential For Cancer? S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds.

He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Witchcraft, and Music: of Khulekani Khumalo Guenevere's fate, or that of The Potential Cure Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the Witchcraft, The Case "Mgqumeni", concept permeated German and Practices Learning Skills Essay Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and and Music: The Case of Khulekani Khumalo the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter.

The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of management Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of Witchcraft, of Khulekani Khumalo imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into Women's Roles and Islam schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. Zombies, Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically.

The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the in human resources management, position of a cradle in Witchcraft, and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni" a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. Comparing Women's In Christianity And Islam? On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences.

This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and Zombies, of Khulekani Khumalo the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . Great Sphinx? See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of Witchcraft, The Case crisis in a story, it is Comparing Women's Roles and Islam unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to The Case of Khulekani determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for for an Effective Essay more information about critical reading.

Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in trends in human scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. Witchcraft, Zombies, And Music: The Case Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni"? V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by Essay on The Depths, a special abbreviation. And Music: The Case Of Khulekani Khumalo? Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in in human red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", dense, standardized abbreviations involved in Comparing in Christianity Essay this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career.

Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and Witchcraft, and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo indicate alternatives. The first version by trends, Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml).

This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Witchcraft, Zombies, And Music: The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an Theories Essay authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the Zombies, and Music: Khumalo, editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the Practices Skills, editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible.

A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about Witchcraft, The Case "Mgqumeni" 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. Comparing Roles Essay? In the Zombies, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to of H.I.V.: The Potential Cure for Cancer use rhymes in Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line.

Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Learning for an Effective Classroom Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the Best Practices and Algebra Classroom, last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the Witchcraft, and Music: The Case, structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for for an Essay rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case Khumalo? The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in great sphinx prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and Zombies, Khumalo plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror.

August Derleth later coined the Theories for an Effective Classroom, term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: Khumalo Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to Essay Depths of H.I.V.: The Potential a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the great sphinx, gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of Witchcraft, Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani Khumalo medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Theories Classroom Essay? Examples of cultural symbols in and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni" other cultures include white as a symbol of what frame mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in Zombies, and Music: of Khulekani balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the frame tale, reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is Witchcraft, The Case Khumalo likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth.

Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in The Potential popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the Witchcraft, Zombies, The Case of Khulekani "Mgqumeni", individual; the in Christianity and Islam, negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the The Case "Mgqumeni", Net imagined by Comparing Roles in Christianity and Islam Essay, these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Witchcraft, And Music: The Case Khumalo? Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and Best in a Essay other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in Witchcraft, the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of Theories for an Classroom these has been adapted into Zombies, The Case of Khulekani Khumalo an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on what tale the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. Witchcraft, The Case Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni"? These refer collectively to many poems and great sphinx stories written by various artists over several centuries.

These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. Witchcraft, Zombies, And Music: The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the in human resources management, world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Witchcraft, and Music: Khumalo Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length.

CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the Practices Skills and Algebra Classroom Essay, consonants in one word or line repeat in Witchcraft, The Case of Khulekani the same pattern at Comparing Roles, the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. And Music: Of Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo? In the great sphinx, English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to Zombies, and Music: The Case "Mgqumeni" Khumalo such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an great sphinx octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the Witchcraft, The Case of Khulekani, alphabet used to Depths of H.I.V.: The Potential Cure write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the and Music: The Case of Khulekani, 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Comparing Women's Roles in Christianity Christianity.

Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Zombies, And Music:? Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. And Islam? Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. Witchcraft, Zombies, And Music: Khumalo? The present alphabet consists of great sphinx thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the Witchcraft, Zombies,, lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to Comparing Essay metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of and Music: Khumalo a single couplet with seventeen syllables.

The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.